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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15378 matches for " William Burkhardt III "
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Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater
Gary P. Richards,Michael A. Watson,E. Fidelma Boyd,William Burkhardt III,Ronald Lau,Joseph Uknalis,Johnna P. Fay
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/375371
Abstract: Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5?mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax ( ) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more ( ) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences ( ) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site ( and , resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels ( ) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. 1. Introduction Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are important foodborne pathogens associated with the consumption of fish and shellfish, especially oysters, which have long been known to bioconcentrate vibrios within their edible tissues [1, 2]. Vibrio vulnificus also causes life-threatening illness from wound infections acquired in the marine environment [3]. Pathogenic vibrios show seasonal predilection in seawater and shellfish, with high counts during warmer months and low to negligible counts during the colder months [2, 4, 5]. Recently, we showed that naturally occurring Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) from coastal seawater significantly reduced the levels of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in seawater and V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and oysters [6]. Among the BALOs are marine and terrestrial forms, with the marine forms associated with Bacteriovorax, which are exclusively saltwater predators [7, 8]. Bacteriovorax have shown preferential predation toward V. parahaemolyticus when compared to a broad range of potential host bacteria [9–12]. This suggests that Bacteriovorax may invade and kill V. parahaemolyticus in seawater more efficiently than other bacterial pathogens. The life cycle of Bacteriovorax and other BALOs usually involve intracellular invasion of and replication within a host cell, although
The Effect of Wealth Inequality on Higher Education Outcomes: A Critical Review  [PDF]
Emily Rauscher, William Elliott III
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.44029
Abstract: American society reflects considerable class immobility, much of which may be explained by the wide gaps in college completion rates between economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups of students. First, we discuss the factors that lead to unequal college completion rates and introduce assets as an explanation often ignored by stratification scholars. We then discuss how a legacy of wealth inequality has led to wealthy students having an advantage at the financial aid bargaining table over low-income and minority students. We conclude by discussing how asset-building policies such as children’s savings accounts offer a potential policy strategy to alter the distributional consequences of the current financial aid system and help level the playing field.
Teaching with Film: A Research Study of Secondary Social Studies Teachers Use of Film
William B. Russell III
Journal of Social Studies Education Research , 2012,
Abstract: Showing a film is common practice in most classrooms. However, how are secondary social studies teachers using film in the classroom? This article attempts to answer this question. Therefore, the major purpose of this study is to examine how teachers use film to teach social studies. Using survey research methodologies, a national random sample of secondary teachers from the United States was administered. In total, two hundred forty eight secondary social studies teachers from across the United States completed a twenty question likert-style survey regarding how they use film in the secondary social studies classroom. The results concluded that many teachers are not using film for optimal purposes. A full discussion of results and study limitations is included and conclusions are made.
An Automated Model for Fitting a Hemi-Ellipsoid and Calculating Eigenvalues Using Matrices  [PDF]
Alicia R. Billington, Peter J. Fabri, William E. Lee III
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.52025

Ellipsoid modeling is essential in a variety of fields, ranging from astronomy to medicine. Many response surfaces can be approximated by a hemi-ellipsoid, allowing estimation of shape, magnitude, and orientation via orthogonal vectors. If the shape of the ellipsoid under investigation changes over time, serial estimates of the orthogonal vectors allow time-sequence mapping of these complex response surfaces. We have developed a quantitative, analytic method that evaluates the dynamic changes of a hemi-ellipsoid over time that takes data points from a surface and transforms the data using a kernel function to matrix form. A least square analysis minimizes the difference between actual and calculated values and constructs the corresponding eigenvectors. With this method, it is possible to quantify the shape of a dynamic hemi-ellipsoid over time. Potential applications include modeling pressure surfaces in a variety of applications including medical.

Treatment principles in the management of open fractures
Cross III William,Swiontkowski Marc
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2008,
Abstract: The management of open fractures continues to provide challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. Despite the improvements in technology and surgical techniques, rates of infection and nonunion are still troublesome. Principles important in the treatment of open fractures are reviewed in this article. Early antibiotic administration is of paramount importance in these cases, and when coupled with early and meticulous irrigation and debridement, the rates of infection can be dramatically decreased. Initial surgical intervention should be conducted as soon as possible, but the classic 6 h rule does not seem to be supported in the literature. All open fractures should be addressed for the risk of contamination from Clostridium tetani . When possible, early closure of open fracture wounds, either by primary means or by flaps, can also decrease the rate of infection, especially from nosocomial organisms. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary, which can be accomplished easily with temporary external fixation. Adhering to these principles can help surgeons provide optimal care to their patients and assist them in an early return to function.
Investigating Physiological and Morphological Mechanisms of Drought Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Lines with 1RS Translocation  [PDF]
David Karki, William Wyant III, William A. Berzonsky, Karl D. Glover
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513207

Rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation is reported to enhance yield attributes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We used 1RS translocations within the spring wheat cultivar “Pavon76” to measure and identify the translocation that is suitable to withstand moisture stress conditions without significant loss in yield potential. Four lines were grown under two water regimes in greenhouse environment in 2011 and 2012. The rye translocation increased root and shoot biomass in some cases, reduced plant height, and delayed maturity in some cases. The 1RS.1BL translocation produced the highest grain yield associated with the lowest root and shoot biomass under both well watered and water stressed conditions. Root and shoot biomass were recorded the highest for 1RS.1AL under well watered condition. However it produced the least biomass for both traits under water stressed conditions. In most cases, lines were not statistically differentiated for seminal root angle, abscisic acid concentration, water use efficiency, and grain yield. Results from our study show that the 1RS.1BL translocation is more suited to produce high grain yield under moisture limiting conditions.

Rejoinder: How EPA research, policies, and programs can advance urban sustainability
Alan D. Hecht,William H. Sanders III
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2007,
Policy Debate: How EPA research, policies, and programs can advance urban sustainability
Alan D. Hecht,William H. Sanders III
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2007,
Abstract: How can a regulatory agency with historic roots in controlling pollution implement sustainability? How does an agency organized by individual media offices for air, water, toxics, and waste develop an integrated systems approach to environmental protection? Aligning and integrating programs is crucial for sustained environmental protection, especially in urban areas. The role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extends beyond setting national standards for air and water, protecting against chemical discharges, and restoring contaminated lands. The agency has the potential to become a national environmental architect by promoting research and innovation targeted at urban sustainability. To develop tools for creating a truly sustainable urban environmental infrastructure, EPA must develop approaches for adapting to potential climate change impacts on urban systems. In short, EPA needs an urban environmental strategy.
An Effective Technique for Enhancing an Intrauterine Catheter Fetal Electrocardiogram
Horner Steven L,Holls III William M
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2003,
Abstract: Physician can obtain fetal heart rate, electrophysiological information, and uterine contraction activity for determining fetal status from an intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram with the maternal electrocardiogram canceled. In addition, the intrauterine catheter would allow physicians to acquire fetal status with one non-invasive to the fetus biosensor as compared to invasive to the fetus scalp electrode and intrauterine pressure catheter used currently. A real-time maternal electrocardiogram cancellation technique of the intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram will be discussed along with an analysis for the methods effectiveness with synthesized and clinical data. The positive results from an original detailed subjective and objective analysis of synthesized and clinical data clearly indicate that the maternal electrocardiogram cancellation method was found to be effective. The resulting intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram from effectively canceling the maternal electrocardiogram could be used for determining fetal heart rate, fetal electrocardiogram electrophysiological information, and uterine contraction activity.
The charge-asymmetric nonlocally-determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model
Ravishankar Sundararaman,William A. Goddard III
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4907731
Abstract: Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally-determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With only three parameters per solvent, this `CANDLE' model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile.
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