Abstract:
The 1964 reports of Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin, and Ovchinnikov (FFLO or LOFF) on paramagnetic enhancement of superconductivity suggested that superconductivity can persist at applied magnetic fields above both its orbital and paramagnetic limits. By forming spatially alternating superconducting and paramagnetic regions, the increase in local magnetic field in the paramagnetic region allows a reduction in field inside the superconductor. We present an FFLO phase diagram model for layered organic superconductors and confirm it with high magnetic field data from four materials. Our work suggests that paramagnetic and superconducting regions form as radially alternating rings about each vortex rather than plane waves, as FFLO is usually described.

Abstract:
We report the phase diagram of $\lambda$-(BETS)$_2$GaCl$_4$ from rf penetration depth measurements with a tunnel diode oscillator in a pulsed magnetic field. We examined four samples with 1100 field sweeps in a range of angles with the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the conducting planes. In the parallel direction, $H_{c2}$ appears to include a tricritical point at 1.6 K and 10 T with a phase line that increases to 11 T as the temperature is decreased to} 500 mK. The second phase line forms a clearly defined high field low temperature region satisfying several of the conditions of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. We show remarkably good fits of $H_{c2}$ to WHH in the reentrant $\alpha>1$, $\lambda_{so}=0$ regime. We also note a sharp angle dependence of the phase diagram about the field parallel orientation that characterizes Pauli paramagnetic limiting and further supports the possibility of FFLO behavior. Unrelated to the FFLO study, at fields and temperatures below $H_{c2}$ and $T_c$, we find rich structure in the penetration depth data that we attribute to impurities at the surface altering the superconducting properties while maintaining the same crystallographic axes as $H_{c2}$.

Abstract:
We discuss improvements to the short-term performance of tunnel diode oscillator transducers with an emphasis on frequencies from 30 MHz to 1.2 GHz using LC type tank circuits. We specifically consider the TDO in pulsed high magnetic fields with fast digital acquisition. Since overdriven oscillators are necessary in pulsed fields to maintain oscillations, we examine the circuit using SPICE simulation during the design process and to gain insight into its behavior. We also discuss a numerical technique for demodulating the oscillations into frequency and amplitude.

Abstract:
We study analytically the structural properties of a system with a short-range attraction and a competing long-range screened repulsion. This model contains the essential features of the effective interaction potential among charged colloids in polymeric solutions and provides novel insights on the equilibrium phase diagram of these systems. Within the self-consistent Hartree approximation and by using a replica approach, we show that varying the parameters of the repulsive potential and the temperature yields a phase coexistence, a lamellar and a glassy phase. Our results strongly suggest that the cluster phase observed in charged colloids might be the signature of an underlying equilibrium lamellar phase, hidden on experimental time scales.

Abstract:
In the present paper, we analyze the consequences of scaling hypotheses on dynamic functions, as two times correlations $C(t,t')$. We show, under general conditions, that $C(t,t')$ must obey the following scaling behavior $C(t,t') = \phi_1(t)^{f(\beta)}{\cal{S}}(\beta)$, where the scaling variable is $\beta=\beta(\phi_1(t')/\phi_1(t))$ and $\phi_1(t')$, $\phi_1(t)$ two undetermined functions. The presence of a non constant exponent $f(\beta)$ signals the appearance of multiscaling properties in the dynamics.

Abstract:
In cond-mat/0002074 Ricci-Tersenghi et al. find two linear regimes in the fluctuation-dissipation relation between density-density correlations and associated responses of the Frustrated Ising Lattice Gas. Here we show that this result does not seem to correspond to the equilibrium quantities of the model, by measuring the overlap distribution P(q) of the density and comparing the FDR expected on the ground of the P(q) with the one measured in the off-equilibrium experiments.

Abstract:
We perform large scale simulations of the frustrated Ising lattice gas, a three-dimensional lattice model of a structural glass, using the parallel tempering technique. We evaluate the spin and density overlap distributions, and the corresponding non-linear susceptibilities, as a function of the chemical potential. We then evaluate the relaxation functions of the spin and density self-overlap, and study the behavior of the relaxation times. The results suggest that the spin variables undergo a transition very similar to the one of the Ising spin glass, while the density variables do not show any sign of transition at the same chemical potential. It may be that the density variables undergo a transition at a higher chemical potential, inside the phase where the spins are frozen.

Abstract:
We propose a new model of cluster growth according to which the probability that a new unit is placed in a point at a distance $r$ from the city center is a Gaussian with mean equal to the cluster radius and variance proportional to the mean, modulated by the local density $\rho(r)$. The model is analytically solvable in $d=2$ dimensions, where the density profile varies as a complementary error function. The model reproduces experimental observations relative to the morphology of cities, determined via an original analysis of digital maps with a very high spatial resolution, and helps understanding the emergence of vehicular traffic.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical properties of the fully frustrated Ising model. Due to the absence of disorder the model, contrary to spin glass, does not exhibit any Griffiths phase, which has been associated to non-exponential relaxation dynamics. Nevertheless we find numerically that the model exhibits a stretched exponential behavior below a temperature T_p corresponding to the percolation transition of the Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters. We have also found that the critical behavior of this clusters for a fully frustrated q-state spin model at the percolation threshold is strongly affected by frustration. In fact while in absence of frustration the q=1 limit gives random percolation, in presence of frustration the critical behavior is in the same universality class of the ferromagnetic q=1/2-state Potts model.

Abstract:
A theoretical and numerically study of dynamical properties in the sol-gel transition is presented. In particular, the complex phenomenology observed experimentally and numerically in gelling systems is reproduced in the framework of percolation theory, under simple assumptions on the relaxation of single clusters. By neglecting the correlation between particles belonging to different clusters, the quantities of interest (such as the self intermediate scattering function, the dynamical susceptibility, the Van-Hove function, and the non-Gaussian parameter) are written as superposition of those due to single clusters. Connection between these behaviors and the critical exponents of percolation are given. The theoretical predictions are checked in a model for permanent gels, where bonds between monomers are described by a finitely extendable nonlinear elastic potential. The data obtained in the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the analytical predictions.