Abstract:
This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly from the learning models commonly used in economics. We relate the learning model from the minority game literature to standard game-theoretic learning models, and show that in fact it shares many features with these models. However, the predictions of the learning model differ considerably from the predictions of most other learning models. We discuss the main predictions of the learning model proposed in the minority game literature, and compare these to experimental findings on congestion games.

Abstract:
The minority game is a simple congestion game in which the players' main goal is to choose among two options the one that is adopted by the smallest number of players. We characterize the set of Nash equilibria and the limiting behavior of several well-known learning processes in the minority game with an arbitrary odd number of players. Interestingly, different learning processes provide considerably different predictions.

Abstract:
A random intersection graph is constructed by assigning independently to each vertex a subset of a given set and drawing an edge between two vertices if and only if their respective subsets intersect. In this paper a model is developed in which each vertex is given a random weight, and vertices with larger weights are more likely to be assigned large subsets. The distribution of the degree of a given vertex is characterized and is shown to depend on the weight of the vertex. In particular, if the weight distribution is a power law, the degree distribution will be so as well. Furthermore, an asymptotic expression for the clustering in the graph is derived. By tuning the parameters of the model, it is possible to generate a graph with arbitrary clustering, expected degree and -- in the power law case -- tail exponent.

Abstract:
Standard models of multi-agent modal logic do not capture the fact that information is often ambiguous, and may be interpreted in different ways by different agents. We propose a framework that can model this, and consider different semantics that capture different assumptions about the agents' beliefs regarding whether or not there is ambiguity. We consider the impact of ambiguity on a seminal result in economics: Aumann's result saying that agents with a common prior cannot agree to disagree. This result is known not to hold if agents do not have a common prior; we show that it also does not hold in the presence of ambiguity. We then consider the tradeoff between assuming a common interpretation (i.e., no ambiguity) and a common prior (i.e., shared initial beliefs).

Abstract:
Standard models of multi-agent modal logic do not capture the fact that information is often \emph{ambiguous}, and may be interpreted in different ways by different agents. We propose a framework that can model this, and consider different semantics that capture different assumptions about the agents' beliefs regarding whether or not there is ambiguity. We examine the expressive power of logics of ambiguity compared to logics that cannot model ambiguity, with respect to the different semantics that we propose.

Abstract:
Le verre, corrodé dans des conditions naturelles, montre souvent des hétérogénéités dans la couche lixiviée, comme une structure lamellaire ou des inclusions de MnO2 ou Ca3(PO4)2. La formation de ces hétérogénéités n’est pas encore bien comprise. Des structures de ce type ont été produites artificiellement en laboratoire en immergeant des échantillons de verre dans des solutions riches en métaux. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été comparés avec des théories décrivant la corrosion du verre. Glass that corrodes under natural conditions often shows heterogeneities in the leached layer, such as a lamellar structure or inclusions of MnO2 or Ca3(PO4)2. The formation of these heterogeneities is still not well understood. By means of experiments under laboratory conditions, our aim was to artificially generate specific structures. Therefore, glass samples were immersed in metal-rich solutions. The experimental results were compared with theories describing glass corrosion from a molecular point of view.

Abstract:
An observational study was conducted on a professional designer working on a design project in aerospace industry. The protocol data were analyzed in order to gain insight into the actions the designer used for the development of a solution to the corresponding problem. Different processes are described: from the "simple" evocation of a solution existing in memory, to the elaboration of a "new" solution out of mnesic entities without any clear link to the current problem. Control is addressed in so far as it concerns the priority among the different types of development processes: the progression from evocation of a "standard" solution to elaboration of a "new" solution is supposed to correspond to the resulting order, that is, the one in which the designer's activity proceeds. Short discussions of * the double status of "problem" and "solution," * the problem/solution knowledge units in memory and their access, and * the different abstraction levels on which problem and solution representations are developed, are illustrated by the results.

Abstract:
This paper defends an augmented cognitively oriented "generic-design hypothesis": There are both significant similarities between the design activities implemented in different situations and crucial differences between these and other cognitive activities; yet, characteristics of a design situation (i.e., related to the designers, the artefact, and other task variables influencing these two) introduce specificities in the corresponding design activities and cognitive structures that are used. We thus combine the generic-design hypothesis with that of different "forms" of designing. In this paper, outlining a number of directions that need further elaboration, we propose a series of candidate dimensions underlying such forms of design.

Abstract:
This paper examines the relationship between gestures' function and form in design collaboration. It adopts a cognitive design research viewpoint. The analysis is restricted to gesticulations and emblems. The data analysed come from an empirical study conducted on an architectural design meeting. Based on a previous analysis of the data, guided by our model of design as the construction of representations, we distinguish representational and organisational functions. The results of the present analysis are that, even if form-function association tendencies exist, gestures with a particular function may take various forms, and particular gestural movements as regards form can fulfil different functions. Reconsidering these results and other research on gesture, we formulate the assumption that, if formal characteristics do not allow differentiating functional gestures in collaboration, context-dependent, semantic characteristics may be more appropriate. We also envision the possibility that closer inspection of the data reveal tendencies of another nature.