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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 174327 matches for " Willem de Villiers "
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Pegylated Arginine Deiminase Downregulates Colitis in Murine Models
Helieh S. Oz,Jian Zhong,Willem J. S. de Villiers
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/813892
Abstract: Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-metabolizing enzyme involved in cell signaling, is dysregulated in multiple inflammatory diseases and cancers. We hypothesized that pegylated ADI (ADI-PEG) provide protection against colitis. Methods. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in IL-10-deficient and BALB/c (WT) mice. ADI-PEG was administered i.p., and inflammatory mediators and pathology were evaluated. Results. Acute colitis in mice was manifested by increases in inflammatory biomarkers, such as serum amyloid A (SAA, <0.001), IL-12 p40, and disease index (3-Fold). In contrast, ADI-PEG significantly decreased clinical disease index, SAA levels, and inflammatory cytokines in blood as well as in colonic explants. Animals developed moderate (2.2±0.3 WT) to severe (3.6±0.5 IL-10 deficient) colonic pathology; and ADI-PEG treatment significantly improved the severity of colitis (<0.05). Marked infiltration of CD68
Chylomicrons Promote Intestinal Absorption and Systemic Dissemination of Dietary Antigen (Ovalbumin) in Mice
Yuehui Wang,Sarbani Ghoshal,Martin Ward,Willem de Villiers,Jerold Woodward,Erik Eckhardt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008442
Abstract: A small fraction of dietary protein survives enzymatic degradation and is absorbed in potentially antigenic form. This can trigger inflammatory responses in patients with celiac disease or food allergies, but typically induces systemic immunological tolerance (oral tolerance). At present it is not clear how dietary antigens are absorbed. Most food staples, including those with common antigens such as peanuts, eggs, and milk, contain long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flux and postprandial transport of chylomicrons through mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and blood. Most dietary antigens, like ovalbumin (OVA), are emulsifiers, predicting affinity for chylomicrons. We hypothesized that chylomicron formation promotes intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigens.
T-Lymphocyte Responses to Intestinally Absorbed Antigens Can Contribute to Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance during High Fat Feeding
Yuehui Wang,Jianing Li,Lihua Tang,Yu Wang,Richard Charnigo,Willem de Villiers,Erik Eckhardt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013951
Abstract: Obesity is associated with inflammation of visceral adipose tissues, which increases the risk for insulin resistance. Animal models suggest that T-lymphocyte infiltration is an important early step, although it is unclear why these cells are attracted. We have recently demonstrated that dietary triglycerides, major components of high fat diets, promote intestinal absorption of a protein antigen (ovalbumin, “OVA”). The antigen was partly transported on chylomicrons, which are prominently cleared in adipose tissues. We hypothesized that intestinally absorbed gut antigens may cause T-lymphocyte associated inflammation in adipose tissue.
Autoimmune enteropathy with a CD8+ CD7- T-cell small bowel intraepithelial lymphocytosis: case report and literature review
Shrinivas Bishu, Violeta Arsenescu, Eun Y Lee, H David Vargas, Willem JS de Villiers, Razvan Arsenescu
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-131
Abstract: We present a case of immune mediated enteropathy distinguished by the CD8+CD7- intra-epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytosis. Twenty-nine cases of AIE have been reported. The majority of patients had auto-antibodies (typically anti-enterocyte), preferential small bowel involvement, and predominately CD3+ CD4+ infiltrates. Common therapies included steroids or immuno-suppressive agents and clinical response with associated with histologic improvement.AIE is most often characterized (1) IgG subclass anti-epithelial cell antibodies, (2) preferential small bowel involvement, and (3) CD3+ alphabeta TCR+ infiltrates; there is insufficient evidence to conclude CD4+ T-cells are solely responsible in all cases of AIE.Immune enteropathies are heterogeneous group of rare conditions characterized by intractable diarrhea, damage to intestinal epithelia and constituent cells, and villous atrophy. These enteropathies may be associated with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) such as the immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, common variable immune deficiency and selective IgA deficiency, or may occur in patients with auto-immune phenomena in the absence of PIDs where it is termed auto-immune enteropathy (AIE) [1].Typically, the diagnosis of immune mediated enteropathy in the setting of PIDs is clear from the clinical features and a pre-existing diagnosis of PID. In contrast, AIE may be diagnosed in patients with no evidence of PIDs, intractable diarrhea refractory to exclusion diets, and no evidence of celiac disease [1].Cumulatively, immune enteropathies, including AIE, have an unclear pathogenesis. They are all thought to be mediated by immune phenomena, either through direct damage to gut epithelial cells by auto-reactive cells (IPEX) or auto-antibodies (AIE), or from a propensity for bowel infections (IgA deficiency). However, the exact cell types causing damage and the mechanisms of disease remain unclear in many of these condition
Protecting Minorities on a Non-Territorial Basis—Recent International Developments  [PDF]
Bertus de Villiers
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.34023
Abstract: The protection of minorities by way of non-territorial arrangements, also called cultural autonomy, is receiving increased attention in theory and practice. While federalism and decentralisation often afford indirect protection of minorities on a territorial basis—be it by way of autonomy to state or local governments—Dispersed minorities often fall through the territorial “cracks”. Cultural autonomy can potentially play a vital role to grant protection to minorities that do not have a territorial base of their own. This article, which reflects on recent international developments to protect minorities by way of non-territorial arrangements, shows how the theory and practice of cultural autonomy have gained legitimacy in countries such as Estonia, Slovenia, Kosovo and Finland. Finally, potential lessons are identified for potential application in other emerging democracies.
Intestinal Epithelial Serum Amyloid A Modulates Bacterial Growth In Vitro and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Experimental Colitis
Erik RM Eckhardt, Jassir Witta, Jian Zhong, Razvan Arsenescu, Violeta Arsenescu, Yu Wang, Sarbani Ghoshal, Marcielle C de Beer, Frederick C de Beer, Willem JS de Villiers
BMC Gastroenterology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-10-133
Abstract: Intestinal SAA expression was measured in mouse and human samples. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis was induced in SAA 1/2 double knockout (DKO) mice and in wildtype controls. Anti-bacterial effects of SAA1/2 were tested in intestinal epithelial cell lines transduced with adenoviral vectors encoding the CE/J SAA isoform or control vectors prior to exposure to live Escherichia coli.Significant levels of SAA1/SAA2 RNA and SAA protein were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in mouse colonic epithelium. SAA3 expression was weaker, but similarly distributed. SAA1/2 RNA was present in the ileum and colon of conventional mice and in the colon of germfree mice. Expression of SAA3 was strongly regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in cultured epithelial cell lines, whereas SAA1/2 expression was constitutive and not LPS inducible. Overexpression of SAA1/2 in cultured epithelial cell lines reduced the viability of co-cultured E. coli. This might partially explain the observed increase in susceptibility of DKO mice to DSS colitis. SAA1/2 expression was increased in colon samples obtained from Crohn's Disease patients compared to controls.Intestinal epithelial SAA displays bactericidal properties in vitro and could play a protective role in experimental mouse colitis. Altered expression of SAA in intestinal biopsies from Crohn's Disease patients suggests that SAA is involved in the disease process..Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein, of which the expression can increase orders of magnitude during infections and stress responses. However, the exact function of SAA is not clear. SAA is evolutionarily strongly conserved, and has been detected in all vertebrates studied to date. Four SAA isoforms have been described in humans and mice [1]. SAA1 and SAA2 represent the main acute-phase isoforms, and are mainly expressed in the liver. SAA3, which is induced during acute and chronic inflammatory responses, is predominantly expressed by macro
Ethical Decision-Making in Clinical Nutritional Practice  [PDF]
Fran?ois P. R. de Villiers
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26089
Abstract: Ethics requires a critical evaluation of assumptions and arguments about norms and values; what should be done and what should not. Practitioners should practice ethically, and the professions should be at the forefront of applied ethics. There are four principles, patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which are guides to ethical day-to-day practice. Patient autonomy: Autonomy means self-rule by persons of their thoughts and actions. Patient autonomy requires the practitioner to realise that patients have the right to be involved in decision-making on their own behalf. Beneficence refers to the duty of the practitioner to do the best for the patient. The benefits of breast-feeding are many, and the eventual outcome on health enormous. Nevertheless, health-care workers are diffident in promoting breast-feeding, and readily accept excuses for not breast-feeding, contrary to the principle of beneficence. Non-maleficence refers to the duty of the practitioner not to do harm; it requires the practitioner to withhold harmful therapies; Vitamin E, for example, has been proven to be ineffective as an antioxidant in humans, and large doses have been proven to increase mortality. Yet these are the doses available in supermarkets and “Health shops”. Nutritionists should actively advise against harmful “dietary supplementation”. Distributive justice requires every patient to have an equal opportunity to obtain appropriate therapy. There are relatively few nutritionists and dieticians in South Africa, and indeed in the entire African continent, but proportionately even fewer in the areas of greatest need. A case illustrates the application of these ethical principles to show how they can be applied to our daily practice. Using these four principles is a practical approach to solving ethical dilemmas.
Theatre and emergency services rendered by generalist medical practitioners in district hospitals in the Western Cape
MR De Villiers, PJT De Villiers
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract: District hospitals play an important role in rendering comprehensive health services to communities. The district hospital is an integral part of the district health system providing not only curative level-one hospital services but also outreach and support to primary health care services. District hospitals are staffed by generalist medical practitioners who are required to perform a wide range of clinical duties and procedures. A situation analysis to identify the range of duties performed by medical practitioners in rendering emergency and theatre services at district hospitals in the Western Cape was conducted in 2001. Data was collected from the casualty register, theatre register, routine monthly hospital report, a medical officer questionnaire and a questionnaire collecting general information about all the district hospitals in the Western Cape province. The 27 district hospitals were staffed by 147 full time, part-time and community service practitioners at the time of the study. The part-time practitioners had statistically significant more experience. Fifty percent of the respondents had done an ATLS or equivalent course, whilst only 5% were qualified family physicians. Musculo-skeletal problems were the most commonly representing complaint at casualty departments, followed by lacerations and assaults. Female sterilization was the most frequently performed surgical procedure, and secondly caesarean section. General anaesthesia was the most common anaesthetic method used. The results of the study underlined the importance of district hospital medical officers being competent generalists, able to deal with undifferentiated problems ranging from simple primary health care complaints to multiple trauma. The need to perform procedures such as caesarean section and general anaesthetic in district hospitals has important implications for appropriate training of district hospital medical practitioners.
Feminine forever?
TJ de Villiers
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
The resurrection as Christ’s entry into his glory (Lk. 24:26)
PGR de Villiers
Acta Theologica , 2011,
Abstract: This essay discusses some apocalyptic perspectives on Luke’s portrayal of the resurrection as Christ’s entry into his glory (Lk. 24:26) in order to point out its mystical nature. After a discussion of some recent developments in research on Luke’s Christology and apocalyptic literature, the importance of glory in Early Jewish and Christian apocalypses is discussed. This is followed by an explanation of the glory motif in Luke 24:26, its place in Luke’s resurrection account in general and in the story of the disciples of Emmaus in particular. The essay then compares the mystical use of the glory motif in Luke 24:26 with Luke’s use of glory elsewhere in his writings. It concludes with general remarks about the mystical nature of the resurrection in Luke’s writings.
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