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OALib Journal期刊

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Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process
W Widayat,S Suherman
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED) , 2012,
Abstract: One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.
Diethyl Ether Production Process with Various Catalyst Type
Widayat,Achmad Roesyadi,Muhammad Rachimoellah
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Several H-zeolite and HZSM-5 catalysts was preparated and their characters have also been investigated. H-zeolit Catalyst was preparated from Natural Zeolite that obtained from Malang District and Gunung Kidul District. Diethyl ether was produced by Ethanol with concentration of 95%. This research use fixed bed reactor that 1 gram of catalyst as bed catalyst, atmospheric pressure and temperature 140oC as the operating condition. Ethanol vapor from vaporization tank was driven by 200 ml/min Nitrogen stream. The responds in this research is liquid product concentration; diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol and water concentration. The results showed that the largest ethanol conversion was produced by the use of 56.44% HZSM-5 and the largest yield of diethyl ether diethyl was produced by the use of alumina and H-zeolite catalyst. The larger ratio between natural zeolite with HCl solvent will produce the larger surface area of catalyst and ethanol conversion. The largest ethanol conversion was produced at reactan ratio 1:20.
Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia
H Hadiyanto,W Widayat,Andri Cahyo Kumoro
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED) , 2012,
Abstract: Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitute current fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17% of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, however the utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from current sources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum) is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oil cannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed as the new potential of energy (biodiesel) sources.
Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production
Johnner P Sitompul,W Widayat,Tatang H Soerawidjaja
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED) , 2012,
Abstract: This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v) bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v) per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.
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