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A Review of the Impact of Requirements on Software Project Development Using a Control Theoretic Model  [PDF]
Anthony White
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39099
Abstract: Software projects have a low success rate in terms of reliability, meeting due dates and working within assigned budgets with only 16% of projects being considered fully successful while Capers Jones has estimated that such projects only have a success rate of 65%. Many of these failures can be attributed to changes in requirements as the project progresses. This paper reviews several System Dynamics models from the literature and analyses the model of Andersson and Karlsson, showing that this model is uncontrollable and unobservable. This leads to a number of is-sues that need to be addressed in requirements acquisition.
Qualitative System Dynamics as a Tool in Accessible Design  [PDF]
Anthony S. White
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.41008
Abstract: A description of the Systems Dynamics paradigm is given and the reduced Qualitative System Dynamics (QSD) form explained. A simple example is given to illustrate the diagram construction. The principles of states (levels), rates and feedback loops are outlined. The QSD method is used to address the problem of accessibility by using human control of automation as an example, and applying the QSD method to evaluate the effects of the researcher and user in the de- sign of an accessible artefact. This simple automation model illustrates what can be found out from such a picture, in this indicating how the feedback from users has an influence on the time to deliver such designs.
Key Vulnerabilities and Limitations in the Management of Hazardous Waste and Its Disposal: A Checklist Assessment Tool  [PDF]
Rob White, Diane Heckenberg
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29145
Abstract: From an environmental protection perspective, the crucial issues pertaining to the policing of hazardous waste relate to both the vulnerabilities and limitations of current practices, and the potential issues that demand attention in the here and now, to alleviate future calamity. This paper describes the process involved in developing a vulnerabilities and limitations checklist that provides a relatively simple yet multi-pronged approach to assessing present and future environmental harms and crimes within the hazardous waste sector. Although it was not the intention of the authors to develop a generic checklist, this tool may prove useful to other industry sectors.
The Sociology of Knowledge, Citizenship and the Purification of Politics  [PDF]
Jed Donoghue, Bob White
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31003

We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge and through a more recent variant on them in Latour’s argument that “we have never been modern” (Latour, 1991). On that basis, we understand citizenship as a recursive effect of disputes over belonging and membership (Isin, 2002), where those disputes entail the three forms of political rationality or “thought styles” which Mannheim and Latour variously suggested: the linearly individual rationality of liberalism; dialectically collective socialism; and culturally collective conservatism. Marshall defines citizenship as a “status bestowed on those who are full members of a community” (Marshall, 1973). He presents an image of evolutionary progress, from civil to political rights and finally to the social form, in Britain. We argue that Marshall was entangled in evolutionary and teleological images of citizenship. We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge. We suggest that sociologies of knowledge allow a re-reading of “citizenship” that can accommodate conceptual difficulties. Mannheim called into question the “progress” implied or stated in theories of “stages”. He stressed instead the continuing interaction between different ways of knowing social reality, or between what he called “thought styles”. We apply Mannheim to “citizenship” in order to lift two “purifications”, so that humanity is both natural and political.

Critical Thinking in Health Sciences Education: Considering “Three Waves”  [PDF]
Renate Kahlke, Jonathan White
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412A1004

Historically, health science education has focused on content knowledge. However, there has been increasing recognition that education must focus more on the thinking processes required of future health professionals. In an effort to teach these processes, educators of health science students have looked to the concept of critical thinking. But what does it mean to “think critically”? Despite some attempts to clarify and define critical thinking in health science education and in other fields, it remains a “complex and controversial notion that is difficult to define and, consequently, difficult to study” (Abrami et al., 2008, p. 1103). This selected review offers a roadmap of the various understandings of critical thinking currently in circulation. We will survey three prevalent traditions from which critical thinking theory emerges and the major features of the discourses associated with them: critical thinking as a set of technical skills, as a humanistic mode of accessing creativity and exploring self, and as a mode of ideology critique with a goal of emancipation. The goal of this literature review is to explore the various ways in which critical thinking is understood in the literature, how and from where those understandings emerge, and the debates that shape each understanding.

Visionaries from the East as Guiding Principles for Western Education  [PDF]
Stephen R. White, John Janowiak
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31002
Abstract: Our analysis of western education is not a “how to” prescription. It is a meaningful and reflective theoretical position as to “what is” the meaning of education, to us. Thus this work is a unique look at the collaboration as a constructive “process,” theoretically an endeavor of reflection, over that of a detailed pragmatic narration of education. Therefore, we believe, it is in spirit of the act of collaboration as process of knowledge revelation. Given this our analysis does not address each and every question posed, specifically, but is a work that sheds light and illuminates the process of education and in doing so does cast a pragmatic shadow over all the questions of interest for this issue. In short, we believe that this work of ours is visionary in scope and relevance.
Long-Term Summary of Ryegrass Varieties and Ploidy Types in Mississippi  [PDF]
Joshua A. White, Rocky Lemus
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521331
Abstract: Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflourum) is the most important cool-season forage crop in Mississippi. It is seeded on more than 500,000 acres every year in the state and consequently seed companies intensely market the area with claims of superior genetic performance. Marketing literature observed in Mississippi focuses on the performance of tetraploid (4×) versus diploid (2×) with claims that 4× varieties provide better yield, disease resistance, and seedling vigor. These claims have rarely been substantiated on long-term performance variety trials. Archived Mississippi State forage variety test data from 1987 to 2012 were compiled for 10 diploid and tetraploid varieties grown at four physiographic locations (Starkville, Raymond, Newton, and Poplarville). Differences in the mean yields between 2× and 4× were only detected in Newton and Poplarville, where 2× varieties had a 4% yield advantage and 4× averaged 10% greater yields, respectively. Across the state, ryegrass yields for both ploidy levels increased over time (4×, R = 0.19931, P = 0.0105 & 2×, R = 0.18816, P = 0.0003), but correlations were variable by location. Biomass yields for both ploidy levels decreased over time in Starkville despite an increase in GDD (Growing Degree Days). With the exception of Raymond, year was the only factor influencing yield. The data suggest that ploidy level of ryegrass in Mississippi has minimal impact on seasonal yield production. However, genetic improvement other than polyploidy induction has increased yield over time.
Utilization of Annual Warm-Season Grasses as a Biofuel Source and Feedstock By-Product  [PDF]
Joshua A. White, Rocky Lemus
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521342
Abstract: Annual warm-season grasses such as forage sorghum, sorghum × sudangrass hybrid and sundangrass are highly productive and valuable feed crops (rotational crop and silage). In addition, sugar in the stems of these warm-season grasses can be extracted and fermented, while the cellulose in the bagasse (pressed stalk) can be used for feedstock or cellulosic ethanol, making them versatile to both the forage and biofuel industry. Twelve annual warm-season grasses including forage sorghums, sudangrass, sorghum × sudangrass hybrid, and pearl millet were planted in 1.82 m × 3.35 m plots, harvested and treated as silage and hay before and after sap removal. Dry matter (DM) yield from a single harvest in 2011 and 2012 were collected and analyzed. Further analysis from the varieties includes evaluation for sap production, OBrix, crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). Forage quality in silage was negatively affected by removing the sap before ensiling, producing quality similar to that of the hay samples. Sugar yields (SY) were not comparable to sweet sorghum yields reported in the literature, but when considering SY along with bagasse yield a few varieties may offer the potential as a dual purpose crop.
Alfalfa Establishment, Performance, and Persistence in Mississippi When Planted into a Bermudagrass Sward  [PDF]
Joshua A. White, Rocky Lemus
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.613224
Abstract: Alfalfa is a high quality forage that is not often utilized in the southeastern United States because of its perceived lack of adaptability to the area. However, the risk of growing alfalfa could be partially mitigated by its inclusion into an existing bermudagrass system that makes up a large portion of pastures and hay fields in Mississippi. Alfalfa was planted into an existing bermudagrass hay field at a rate of 17, 22, 28 and 39 kg·ha-1 in no-till and minimum till sod preparation and analyzed for three growing seasons. Tillage did not affect any of the variables observed but seeding rate and time affected DM (dry matter) yield, forage nutritive value and plot composition. The increasing alfalfa seeding rate increased alfalfa yield in the plot but this was isolated to only the first year. Dry matter yields decreased over the three years due to the decrease in alfalfa composition, but throughout the growing season DM yields increased after the first year suggesting bermudagrass recolonization within the plot. Forage nutritive value was positively affected with as little as 20% of the plot composed of alfalfa suggesting that even thinning stands by the third year might offer economic advantages.
Calcium Homeostasis in Articular Chondrocytes of Two Different Animal Species  [PDF]
Rachel White, John Stanley Gibson
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.88012
Abstract: Introduction: Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a critical parameter in cellular homeostasis, including articular chondrocytes. Perturbed [Ca2+]i of chondrocytes may be associated with joint disease. The objective of the study was to compare large animal models for investigating Ca2+ homeostasis in chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: The gross anatomy of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) of cattle and sheep was compared, along with the effect of various manoeuvres used to study the mechanisms of Ca2+ homeostasis in chondrocytes from load-bearing areas. The gross anatomy was observed before and after dissection, and internal architecture was examined after sectioning. Cartilage thickness was measured with a digital micrometer. Chondrocyte yield was determined after isolation. Chondrocytes were incubated with Fura-2 and Ca2+i followed in different extracellular conditions. A hypotonic shock (HTS) was used to mimic removal of a load. Results: The results showed that ovids and bovids were skeletally immature and aspects of Ca2+ homeostasis were similar. Ovine chondrocytes had higher resting fluorescence, consistent with elevated resting Ca2+ levels. Results from ion substitution experiments were consistent with a role for Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and swelling-induced Ca2+ enters into the cytoplasm via the plasma membrane and intracellular stores. Conclusions: Ca2+ homeostasis in chondrocytes from both species behaved in a similar manner to HTS and ion substitutions. Differences in resting [Ca2+]i could be associated with species, stage of maturation, or Fura-2 itself and require further investigation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the physiology of articular cartilage in different species, and their potential use as models for studying joint disease in humans.
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