Abstract:
The QCD light quark mass renormalized at a 1 GeV scale in the $ \overline{MS} $ scheme is obtained from the numerical results of the lattice QCD simulation with staggered fermions. The primary emphasis is given to the connection between the lattice and continuum parameters. The results are compared with those from the QCD sum rule.

Abstract:
We study possibility of improving staggered fermions using various fat links in order to reduce perturbative corrections to the gauge-invariant staggered fermion operators. We prove five theorems on SU(3) projection, triviality in renormalization, multiple SU(3) projections, uniqueness and equivalence. As a result of these theorems, we show that, at one loop level, the renormalization of staggered fermion operators is identical between SU(3) projected Fat7 links and hypercubic links, as long as the action and operators are constructed by imposing the same perturbative improvement condition. In addition, we propose a new view of SU(3) projection as a tool of tadpole improvement for the staggered fermion doublers. As a conclusion, we present alternative choices of constructing fat links to improve the staggered fermion action and operators, which deserve further investigation.

Abstract:
Using staggered fermions, we calculate the perturbative corrections to the bilinear and four-fermion operators that are used in the numerical study of weak matrix elements for $\epsilon'/\epsilon$. We present results for one-loop matching coefficients between continuum operators, calculated in the Naive Dimensional Regularization (NDR) scheme, and gauge invariant staggered fermion operators. These results, combined with existing results for penguin diagrams, provide the complete one-loop renormalization of the staggered four-fermion operators.

Abstract:
We present a chronological review of the progress in calculating weak matrix elements using staggered fermions. We review the perturbative calculation of one-loop matching formula including both current-current diagrams and penguin diagrams using improved staggered fermions. We also present preliminary results of weak matrix elements relevant to CP violation calculated using the improved (HYP (II)) staggered fermions. Since the complete set of matching coefficients at the one-loop level became available recently, we have constructed lattice operators with all the $g^2$ corrections included. The main results include both $\Delta I = 3/2$ and $\Delta I = 1/2$ contributions.

Abstract:
We calculate, at the one loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, $\bar{\rm Fat7}$, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, $\bar{\rm Fat7}$ and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide the complete matching at the one loop level with all corrections of ${\cal O}(g^2)$ included.

Abstract:
We review recent progress in calculating kaon spectrum, pseudoscalar meson decay constants, $B_K$, $\epsilon'/\epsilon$, $K\to \pi\pi$ matrix elements, kaon semileptonic form factors, and moments of kaon distribution amplitudes on the lattice. We also address the issue of how best to improve the staggered fermion formulation for the action and operators.

Abstract:
There are at least two methods to calculate $ B_K $ with staggered fermions: one is the two spin trace formalism and the other is the one spin trace formalism. We have performed numerical simulations on a $ 16^3 \times 40 $ lattice in full QCD with $ \beta = 5.7 $ and a dynamical quark mass 0.01 in lattice units. We try various sources to select only the pseudo-Goldstone bosons and compare the various results.

Abstract:
It has been known for some time that there are two methods to calculate $ B_K $ with staggered fermions: one is the two spin trace formalism and the other is the one spin trace formalism. Until now, the two spin trace formalism has been exclusively used for weak matrix element calculations with staggered fermions. Here, the one spin trace formalism to calculate $ B_K $ with staggered fermions is explained. It is shown that the one spin trace operators require additional chiral partner operators in order to keep the continuum chiral behavior. The renormalization of the one spin trace operators is described and compared with the two spin trace formalism.

Abstract:
We have computed $ B_K $ with staggered fermions, using two different methods: both in the one spin trace form and two spin trace form. Renormalized results in both forms are in good agreement. The numerical simulations were performed on a $ 16^3 \times 40 $ lattice in full QCD with $ \beta = 5.7 $. We also tried an improved wall source method in order to select only the pseudo-Goldstone bosons and compare the numerical results obtained with those from the conventional wall source method. We have studied $ B_K $ with a series of non-degenerate quark anti-quark pairs and saw no effect on $ B_K $, although dramatic effects in the chiral limit were seen on the individual terms making up $ B_K $.

Abstract:
We have computed $ B_K $, using two different methods with staggered fermions on a $ 16^3 \times 40 $ lattice at $ \beta = 5.7 $ with two dynamical flavors of a mass 0.01. % Using an improved wall source method, we have studied a series of non-degenerate quark antiquark pairs and observed no effect on $ B_K $, although effects were seen on the individual terms making up $ B_K $.