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A Classification of Feminist Theories
Karen Wendling
Les Ateliers de l’éthique , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper I criticize Alison Jaggar’s descriptions of feminist political theories. I propose an alternative classification of feminist theories that I think more accurately reflects the multiplication of feminist theories and philosophies. There are two main categories, “street theory” and academic theories, each with two sub-divisions, political spectrum and “differences” under street theory, and directly and indirectly political analyses under academic theories. My view explains why there are no radical feminists outside of North America and why there are so few socialist feminists inside North America. I argue, controversially, that radical feminism is a radical version of liberalism. I argue that “difference” feminist theories – theory by and about feminists of colour, queer feminists, feminists with disabilities and so on – belong in a separate sub-category of street theory, because they’ve had profound effects on feminist activism not tracked by traditional left-to-right classifications. Finally, I argue that, while academic feminist theories such as feminist existentialism or feminist sociological theory are generally unconnected to movement activism, they provide important feminist insights that may become importantby showing the advantages of my classification over Jaggar’s views. Une analyse critique de la description des théories politiques féministes révèle qu’une classification alternative à celle de Jaggar permettrait de répertorier plus adéquatement les différents courants féministes qui ont évolués au cours des dernières décennies. La nouvelle cartographie que nous proposons comprend deux familles de féminisme : activiste et académique. Cette nouvelle manière de localiser et situer les féminismes aide à comprendre pourquoi il n’y a pas de féminisme radical à l’extérieur de l’Amérique du Nord et aussi pourquoi il y a si peu de féministes socialistes en Amérique du Nord. Dans ce nouveau schème, le féminisme de la différence devient une sous-catégorie du féminisme activiste car ce courant a eu une influence importante sur le féminisme activiste. Même si les courants de féminisme académique n’ont pas de rapports directs avec les mouvements activistes, ils jouent un r le important dans l’énonciation et l’élaboration de certaines problématiques qui, ensuite, peuvent s’avérer cruciales pour les activistes. Nous concluons en démontrant que cette nouvelle classification représente plus clairement les différents féminismes et facilite la compréhension de l’évolution du féminisme et des enjeux qui ont influencé le féminisme.
Miniestaquia seriada no rejuvenescimento de clones de Eucalyptus
Wendling, Ivar;Xavier, Aloisio;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2003000400005
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of serial minicuttings technique in four clones of eucalyptus grandis, regarding to survival, rooting and growth in height and diameter of the seedlings. seven subcultures, by serial minicuttings technique, through successive rooting of the sprouts were accomplished. rooting was carried out in a greenhouse during 25 days, followed by ten days acclimatization at shadow house, and final evaluation of the seedlings at 50 days, in the sun. the serial minicuttings technique showed positive effect, mostly for difficult rooting clones.
Influência da miniestaquia seriada no vigor radicular de clones de Eucalyptus grandis
Wendling, Ivar;Xavier, Aloisio;
Revista árvore , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622005000500003
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the serial minicutting technique on the rooting vigor of seedlings of four eucalyptus grandis clones. following seven minicutting subcultures, the minicuttings were rooted under greenhouse conditions (25 days), with acclimatization for 10 days in the shade and final seedling evaluation at 50 days old, under full light. in general, the serial subcultures promoted an increase in the number of roots and provided greater initial root vigor for clones with less rooting potential, suggesting a positive effect of the serial minicutting technique on eucalyptus clones for these characteristics.
Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ds miniestaquia seriada no enraizamento e vigor de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis
Wendling, Ivar;Xavier, Aloisio;
Revista árvore , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622005000600011
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the serial minicutting technique and the effects of different dosages (0, 500, 1500 and 3000 mg l-1) of the growth regulator indolbutiric acid (iba), on the survival, rooting and radicular vigor of minicuttings in clones of eucalyptus grandis. the iba application caused no increase in rooting, survival and radicular vigor of the seedlings. in some evaluated characteristics and clones, toxic effects were found in concentrations of aib above 500 mg l-1. the serial minicutting technique provided greater efficiency for the vegetative propagation of less-juvenile eucalyptus grandis clones.
Miniestaquia seriada no rejuvenescimento de clones de Eucalyptus
Wendling Ivar,Xavier Aloisio
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da técnica de miniestaquia seriada em quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto à sobrevivência, ao enraizamento e ao crescimento em altura e diametro de colo das mudas. Foram realizados sete subcultivos pela miniestaquia seriada, por enraizamento sucessivo de brota es de minicepas, em casa de vegeta o durante 25 dias, seguido de aclimata o por dez dias em casa de sombra e avalia o final das mudas aos 50 dias de idade, em pleno sol. A miniestaquia seriada mostrou efeito positivo, principalmente em rela o aos clones que apresentaram menor potencial de enraizamento.
Aloca o de ativos no mercado acionário brasileiro segundo o conceito de downside risk Asset allocation in the Brazilian stock market according to the downside risk strategy
Fabio Wendling Muniz de Andrade
Rege : Revista de Gest?o , 2006,
Abstract: O artigo compara a abordagem tradicional de média-variancia na determina o de portfólios eficientes com a abordagem de risco assimétrico (downside risk), que substitui a variancia pela semivariancia ou outro LPM (Lower Partial Moment). Um estudo empírico é realizado para obter as fronteiras eficientes usando-se ambas as abordagens, e estratégias de aloca o de ativos s o simuladas e comparadas. Resultados demonstram que, se os investidores possuem preferências assimétricas em rela o ao risco, a abordagem de média-semivariancia é superior em termos de eficiência. Adicionalmente, verifica-se que a minimiza o do risco assimétrico fornece efetivamente maior prote o contra perdas quando comparada com a minimiza o da variancia na aloca o de ativos. The traditional mean-variance approach for building efficient portfolios was compared to the downside risk approach that substitutes variance of returns by semi-variance or another lower partial momentum of returns. Empirical investigation searched for efficient frontiers using both approaches and strategies for asset allocation which were simulated for comparison. The downside risk approach was shown to be superior in terms of efficiency when investors had asymmetric preferences related to risk. Further the strategy of minimizing downside risk effectively provided greater protection against losses when compared to the strategy of variance minimization, for asset allocation.
SOBREVIVêNCIA E VIGOR VEGETATIVO DE PLANTAS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.- Hil.) ENXERTADAS DIRETAMENTE A CAMPO
Danilo Martin Domingos,Ivar Wendling
Ciência Florestal , 2006,
Abstract: O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a sobrevivência e o vigor vegetativo de material genético adulto selecionado de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill) enxertado diretamente a campo. A enxertia foi realizada em plantas de aproximadamente 3 anos de idade, sendo o material vegetativo enxertado coletado do ter o inferior ou próximo da base de duas árvores selecionadas com a idade estimada em torno de 70 anos. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de garfagem em fenda cheia, onde foram enxertadas 48 plantas com material de cada uma das duas matrizes. Os dados de sobrevivência foram obtidos aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia, e de crescimento (quantidade e comprimento total de brotos por enxerto vivo) aos 90 e 120 dias da enxertia. P de-se concluir sobre a enxertia da erva-mate realizada diretamente a campo que: é viável tecnicamente, havendo um decréscimo na sobrevivência das plantas enxertadas em fun o do número de dias após a enxertia; as matrizes utilizadas apresentaram comportamentos distintos na porcentagem de sobrevivência e; os enxertos sobreviventes demonstraram um bom vigor de crescimento.
Produ??o e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidrop?nico
Wendling, Ivar;Dutra, Leonardo Ferreira;Grossi, Fernando;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2007000200019
Abstract: the objective of this study was to assess the technical viability of semi-hydroponic system for conduction of ilex paraguariensis ministumps, and the answer of these to different nutritional solutions in the successive gatherings, as well as, the survival of the minicuttings produced in this system after rooting. after eleven gatherings, there was 95.6% of ministumps survival, and production of 291minicuttings m-2 of miniclonal garden. the minicuttings survival was 85.6%, with no significant difference between the solutions. the adopted system is technically viable, and lower concentrated solution to conduct the ministumps is recommended.
Elementos biológicos na configura??o do território do rio Doce
Espindola, Haruf Salmen;Wendling, Ivan Jannotti;
Varia Historia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-87752008000100009
Abstract: at the middle doce river , between 1930 and 1960, the forest lands had been occupied by agriculture and cattle raising. first, the agricultural cultures had found favorable conditions to enlargement, but not enough for consolidating itself, before giving place to cattle, as it is common in the history of brazilian agriculture. the lands covered by the forest had been invaded by the capim-coloni?o (panicum maximum jacq. var. maximum) in a bigger rhythm than the advance of the human activity. the african grassy found very good conditions to spreading (the relief, the climate and the practices of the farmers. its biological characteristics had favored the advance of the grass. the capim-coloni?o does not diminished the force of the socioeconomics elements, marked for power relations where the farmer took clear advantage, but understand its biological aspects contributes for the understanding of the configuration of the territory of the river doce.
Características físicas e químicas de substratos para produ??o de mudas de Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.
Wendling, Ivar;Guastala, Daniel;Dedecek, Renato;
Revista árvore , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622007000200003
Abstract: this work aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of different materials and their compositions, as well as their efficiency in the production of ilex paraguariensis seedlings in plastic tubes. the work was conducted at the baldo s.a. company nursery in s?o mateus do sul, pr, brazil. six materials were used to formulate 14 treatments: cattle manure, semi-decomposed sawdust, ilex paraguariensis chopped stems, underground earth, commercial substrate based on pinus bark and earthworm humus. the results indicated that the treatments containing sawdust, ilex paraguariensis stems and mainly cattle manure, besides being more economical, produced good quality seedlings. the treatments consisting of 40% cattle manure and 60% sawdust stood out because of the good cost-benefit ratio and the easiness of preparation. substrate chemical characteristics did not affect the physical characteristics, as well the influence of physical characteristics on ilex paraguariensis seedling production depends on the analyzed variable.
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