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匹配条件: “Wenchuan earthquake” ,找到相关结果约1295条。
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Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin  [PDF]
Lijian Qi, ZhaoYin Wang, Xuzhao Wang
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.428084
Abstract: The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in normal years. Only a part of the solid material could be transported by the river water flow as suspended load and bed load. The total volume of bed load deposit in the river and the quake lakes was 1.43 million m3. Moreover the quake lakes had also trapped 0.12 million m3 suspended load. Only 0.18 million m3 of fine sediment had been drifted through the quake lakes and transported into the lower reaches of the Mianyuan River. The wide range of size distributions of sediment from earthquake erosion caused the extreme difference in the amounts of sediment erosion and transportation. Most of the sediment from earthquake erosion can be only transported for a short distance by landslides and debris flows. Less than 0.2% of the total volume of sediment from earthquake erosion may be transported into large rivers. Therefore, earthquake erosion has little effect on the sediment transportation and fluvial processes in the large rivers.
The automatic processes of earthquake-related stimulus: Comparison at different time points after the Wenchuan earthquake  [PDF]
Ming Lei, Jiang Qiu, Qinglin Zhang
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58112
Abstract:

Trauma experience not only could predict long-term physical and mental health problems, but also could have impact on the cognitive processes. Modified Stroop task and subliminal masked priming task were used to examine the automatic cognitive processing of earthquake-related stimulus (disaster-related, rescue-related, and earthquake-unrelated words) of healthy undergraduates at one month and two years since the Wenchuan earthquake happened, who came from the worst-hit areas of the Wenchuan earthquake. The results showed that the earthquake interference effects were showed in modified Stroop task and reversed priming effects were found in subliminal masked priming task at one month after the Wenchuan earthquake. However, two years later, earthquake interference effects and reversed priming effects were not found in the same experiments. The results showed the automatic cognitive processing of healthy subjects experienced trauma was affected by the earthquake episodic memory, and these interference effects were weakened with the passage of time.

Advantages of GNSS in Monitoring Crustal Deformation for Detection of Precursors to Strong Earthquakes  [PDF]
Guohua Gu, Wuxing Wang
Positioning (POS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pos.2013.41003
Abstract:

Earthquake predictions inChinahave had rare successes but suffered more tragic setbacks since the Xintai earthquake in 1966. They have developed with twists and turns under the influence of the viewpoint that earthquakes are unpredictable etc. Though the Wenchuan earthquake of M8.0 in2008 inChina and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake of M9.0 inJapan were failed to predict, the GPS observations before and after these 2 events have shown that there were precursors to these events and large earthquakes are predictable. Features of different observation techniques, data processing methods are compared and some recent studies on precursory crustal deformations are summarized, so various advantages of GPS technique in monitoring crustal deformation are emphasized. The facts show that anomalies or precursors detected from GPS observations before the great Wenchuan earthquake have been the most remarkable results of explorations on crustal movements and earthquake precursors in China. GPS is in deed an excellent observation technique for earthquake prediction.

Surface rupture and hazard characteristics of the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, Sichuan, China  [PDF]
Rong-Jun Zhou, Yong Li, Liang Yan, Jian-Cheng Lei, Yi Zhang, Yu-Lin He, Long-Shen Chen, Xiao-Gang Li, Shi-Yuan Wang, You-Qing Ye, Yu-Fa Liu, Chuan-Chuan Kang, Tian-Yong Ge, Qiang He, Wei Huang
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.23026
Abstract: Longmen Shan is located the special joint be-tween Tibetan Plateau inland in the west and Yangtze craton in the east. Consisting of a se-ries of parallel imbricated thrust, it develops, from the west to the east, the Maoxian- Wenchuan, Beichuan-Yingxiu and Pengxian- ﹡This research was supported by China National Natural Science Foundation grant 40841010, 40972083 and China National Science and Technology supporting Plan Foundation grant 2006BAC13B02-07, 2006BAC13B01-604. Guanxian faults. The Wenchuan earthquake is a thrust with strike-slip type, and thre surface ruptures are located on the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault zone and Pengxian-Guanxian fault zone. The surface rupture on the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault shows the thrust and dextral slip charac-teristic. The maximum vertical displacement of the surface rupture is about 10.3 m and the maxi-mum right-lateral displacement is about 5.85m. Though the vertical displacements and the hori-zontal displacements in the different segments have certain differences, as a whole, the ratio of the vertical displacement and the horizontal dis-placement is close to 1:1. The surface rupture on the Pengxian-Guanxian fault shows thrust and dextral characteristic. The rates of vertical dis-placements and the horizontal displacements ones on the most other segments are between 1:3 and 1:2. So the Beichuan- Yingxiu fault is a dextral-slip and thrust fault and the average ver-tical displacement is equal to the average hori-zontal displacement, while the Pengxian- Guan xian fault is thrust fault with a little dextral-slip component. The total intensity area above Ⅵ de-gree of the Wenchuan earthquake is about 333000 km2. The high earthquake intensity line stretches to N40-50°E along Longmen Shan tectonic belt. The rate of the long axis and the minor is betw- een 8:1 and 10:1. Three Ⅺ intensity regions are isolated in distribution. It presents a multipoint instantaneous characteristic of the rupture.
Surface Rupture and Hazard of Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake, Sichuan, China  [PDF]
Yong Li, Runqiu Huang, Liang Yan, Alexander L. Densmore, Rongjun Zhou
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.11003
Abstract: Longmen Shan is located the special joint between the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the west and the Yangtze craton in the east. Consisting of a series of parallel imbricated thrust, it develops, from the west to the east, the Maoxian-Wenchuan, Yingxiu-Beichuan and Pengxian-Guanxian faults. Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake is a thrust with strike-slip type, and surface ruptures are located in Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Peng- xian-Guanxian fault zone. Based on the geological background, tectonic setting, the active tectonics of Long- men Shan and surface ruptures of the Wenchuan earthquake, a dynamical model to illustrate possible links between surface processes and upward extrusion of lower crustal flow channel at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau have been studied, and the results is the material in lower crust in the Longmen Shan moving as nearly-vertical extrusion and uplift, resulting in the surface rate of tectonic movement differing according to depth rate as well as the occurrence of large shallow Wenchuan earthquake.
Overview of Wound Features and Treatment in Wenchuan Earthquake Victims  [PDF]
Yuanzhang Yao, Lianyang Zhang, Xiaobin Cheng, Yue Shen, Yong He
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2014.32010
Abstract: Objective: “5.12” Wenchuan Earthquake killed 70,000 people and left more than 90,000 people injured seriously. This study was to analyze the wound features and early treatments in Wenchuan earthquake victims and investigate treatment strategies in major disasters, to provide a reference to future disaster rescue. Methods: Total of 1420 earthquake patients who were admitted to Deyang People’s Hospital, Sichuan Province from May 12-30, 2008 were enrolled in the study. The wound features and early treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among 1420 patients, there were total 1821 injuries. In which, there were 1089 cases with single site injury (76.69%) and 331 cases with multiple injury (23.31%); injuries of limb, body surface and soft tissue were more than that of other sites; injury of single site was larger than that of multi-site (P < 0.01); most of the earthquake patients were admitted to hospital within 2 days after earthquake (68.80%), whose number was more than those at other times (P < 0.01); the number of the earthquake patients in 19 - 45 age group was more than that of other groups (P < 0.01); most of patients were treated within 12 hours after injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: In disaster rescue, rescue speed is the key point. And the “golden time” and emphases of rescue should be within 2 days after earthquake; the principle of damage control surgery should be followed in the rescue. Enhancing mutual and self help practice and first-aid training at usual times may save more lives.
Complicated phenomena of the Beichuan-Yingxiu surface fracture zone during Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in Sichuan Province, China
ZhiHui Deng,ZhuEn Yang,ZhaoMin Sun,GuiHua Chen,WenTao Ma,Qian Sun
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0473-4
Abstract: After Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the surface fractures have been investigated in Beichuan City and Yingxiu Town. It was found that the Beichuan-Yingxiu earthquake fracture zone trends northeastward, dipping to northwest. The earthquake fracture zone is mainly characterized by thrust faulting with small amounts of strike-slip movement, and demonstrating various complexities for different areas. The phenomena related to dextral strike-slip displacement are found in Beichuan City and those related to left-lateral strike-slip movement in Yingxiu Town. The compressive shortening of the two surface fracture zones in Beichuan City is 2.8–3.9 m and the left-lateral strike-slip displacement of the surface fractures in Yingxiu Town is 0.52 m.
强震前近震中区地电场异常研究
Geoelectric Field Ratio Anomalies near Epicenter Area before Earthquakes
 [PDF]

张磊, 田山
Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (EAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.12677/EAA.2013.21002
Abstract:

对国内地电场观测的分析结果表明,地电场观测资料中存在着各种不规则的扰动变化和多种频谱的周期性变化,这种与地磁场或者固体潮正常变化相关的电场变化和地震前兆变化混杂在一起,很难从原始资料中识别和提取地震前兆信息。考虑到与地震有关的近场变化对地震预测的研究更具实际意义,本文中选取了汶川、玉树地震震源区附近的39个台站和文安地区12个台站的地电场观测资料,通过计算同台、同测向观测资料的长、短极距测值的比值对地震前兆信息进行分析、研究。结果表明,震中区的多数台站地电场的比值震前存在不同形态的异常变化。
The analysis of geoelectric observation in Chinaindicates that geoelectric data contain various irregular changes and multiform spectrum periodic changes. These changes are correlated with normal geomagnetic field or earth tide and mixed with seismic precursor information, which make it difficult to detect and extract seismic precursor information from raw data. Considering that changes in near field are more significant to earthquake prediction, the data from 39 stations near the epicenter area of Wenchuan and Yushu earthquake and 12 near the epicenter area of Wen’an earthquake have been collected in order to calculate the ratio for further research using the long and short dipole distance observation data in the same direction of the same station. The result indicates that most of the stations appear ratio anomaly with different shape before an earthquake in the epicenter area.

汶川8.0级地震地表破裂迹线附近建筑物的震害分布
Distribution of Seismic Damaged Buildings along the Trace of Ground Surface Rupture Caused by the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake
 [PDF]

赵纪生, 吴景发, 师黎静, 刘艳琼
Advances in Geosciences (AG) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/ag.2012.21001
Abstract:

汶川地震地表破裂带主要分三部分,映秀–北川地表破裂带、通济–雎水地表破裂带、以及小鱼洞地表破裂带。映秀–北川地表破裂带是汶川地震的主要破裂带,处于龙门山中央断裂带上,全长达260 km以上;通济–雎水地表破裂带是汶川地震在前山断裂带上产生的地表破裂,全长约50 km;小鱼洞破裂带,是主断裂带上的一个分支,从小鱼洞经草坝,延伸至向峨,破裂带由北西向逐渐过渡到南西向,全长约6 km。已发现的最大同震位错位于主破裂带的都江堰虹口附近,最大垂直位错4.8 m、最大水平右旋位错4.7 m。本文以南坝镇地震地表破裂点附近的建(构)筑物震害调查为例展开,此段地表垂直位错0.5~2.5 m,水平位错1.3~2.0 m,地表强变形带宽度7.6~18 m;相应地,50 m范围内的房屋完好率为0,倒塌率为0.424,中等破坏与严重破坏率为0.576。沿地表破裂带上的15个乡镇的1699栋建(构)筑物震害表明,在距地表破裂迹线距离为150 m范围内的建筑物的倒塌率逐渐下降,即从0.33193降低到0.29264;在距地表破裂迹线距离为250 m范围内的建筑物的完好率逐渐上升,即从0.08824上升到0.1248;超过这样的区域,倒塌率和完好率趋于平缓。从震害指数角度,可以发现,在距地表破裂迹线距离为150 m范围内的建筑物的震害指数逐渐下降,即从0.72降低到0.47344;超过这样的区域,震害指数规律性不明。
Field investigations of the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake show that buildings on the ground surface rupture zone were severely damaged. The surface rupture zone consists of three parts. Two of the parts are respectively along the trace of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault. The former part is about 260 km long, which starts at Yingxiu and terminates at Nanba; the latter part is about 50 km long which starts at Tongji and terminates at Jushui. The third part connects the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault from Xiao Yudong, to Tongji, which is about 6 km long. The maximum vertical and horizontal offset of 4.8 m and 4.7 m, respectively, were observed along the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, whereas a maximum vertical offset of 3.5 m occurred along the Guanxian- Jiangyou fault. The distribution of damaged buildings along the trace of ground surface was investigated in many segments. The seismic damage distribution in Nanba area will be introduced considering that lots of rural residents live there. Vertical and horizontal offset of 0.5 - 2.5 m and 1.3 - 2.7 m, respectively, were observed along this segment, and the significant width of deformation caused by the offset is 7.6 - 18 m. In this segment, the building of intact ratio is zero, the ratio of medium to the serious damage is 0.576 and the collapse ratio is 0.424 within 50 m. Totally 1699 structures were investigated in 15 segments along the ground surface rupture zone. The collapse ratio decreases from 0.33193 to 0.29264 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 150 m. Here the fault distance is defined as a distance from location of structure to the trace line of rupture points; the building of intact ratio increases from 0.08824 to 0.12480 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 250 m. In other way, earthquake damage index of building structure decreases from 0.72 to 0.47344 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 150 m. There is no significant

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING
Sheng YING
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.
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