Trauma experience not only could predict long-term physical and mental health problems, but also could have impact on the cognitive processes. Modified Stroop task and subliminal masked priming task were used to examine the automatic cognitive processing of earthquake-related stimulus (disaster-related, rescue-related, and earthquake-unrelated words) of healthy undergraduates at one month and two years since the Wenchuan earthquake happened, who came from the worst-hit areas of the Wenchuan earthquake. The results showed that the earthquake interference effects were showed in modified Stroop task and reversed priming effects were found in subliminal masked priming task at one month after the Wenchuan earthquake. However, two years later, earthquake interference effects and reversed priming effects were not found in the same experiments. The results showed the automatic cognitive processing of healthy subjects experienced trauma was affected by the earthquake episodic memory, and these interference effects were weakened with the passage of time.
Earthquake predictions inChinahave had rare successes but suffered more tragic setbacks since the Xintai
earthquake in 1966. They have developed with twists and turns under the
influence of the viewpoint that earthquakes are unpredictable etc. Though the Wenchuan
earthquake of M8.0 in2008 inChina and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake of M9.0 inJapan were failed to predict, the GPS
observations before and after these 2 events have shown that there were precursors to these events and large
earthquakes are predictable. Features of different observation techniques, data
processing methods are compared and some recent studies on precursory crustal
deformations are summarized, so various advantages of GPS technique in monitoring
crustal deformation are emphasized. The facts show that anomalies or precursors
detected from GPS observations before the great Wenchuan earthquake have been
the most remarkable results of explorations on crustal movements and earthquake precursors in China. GPS is in deed an excellent
observation technique for earthquake prediction.
对国内地电场观测的分析结果表明，地电场观测资料中存在着各种不规则的扰动变化和多种频谱的周期性变化，这种与地磁场或者固体潮正常变化相关的电场变化和地震前兆变化混杂在一起，很难从原始资料中识别和提取地震前兆信息。考虑到与地震有关的近场变化对地震预测的研究更具实际意义，本文中选取了汶川、玉树地震震源区附近的39个台站和文安地区12个台站的地电场观测资料，通过计算同台、同测向观测资料的长、短极距测值的比值对地震前兆信息进行分析、研究。结果表明，震中区的多数台站地电场的比值震前存在不同形态的异常变化。The analysis of geoelectric observation in Chinaindicates that geoelectric data contain various irregular changes and multiform spectrum periodic changes. These changes are correlated with normal geomagnetic field or earth tide and mixed with seismic precursor information, which make it difficult to detect and extract seismic precursor information from raw data. Considering that changes in near field are more significant to earthquake prediction, the data from 39 stations near the epicenter area of Wenchuan and Yushu earthquake and 12 near the epicenter area of Wen’an earthquake have been collected in order to calculate the ratio for further research using the long and short dipole distance observation data in the same direction of the same station. The result indicates that most of the stations appear ratio anomaly with different shape before an earthquake in the epicenter area.
汶川地震地表破裂带主要分三部分，映秀–北川地表破裂带、通济–雎水地表破裂带、以及小鱼洞地表破裂带。映秀–北川地表破裂带是汶川地震的主要破裂带，处于龙门山中央断裂带上，全长达260 km以上；通济–雎水地表破裂带是汶川地震在前山断裂带上产生的地表破裂，全长约50 km；小鱼洞破裂带，是主断裂带上的一个分支，从小鱼洞经草坝，延伸至向峨，破裂带由北西向逐渐过渡到南西向，全长约6 km。已发现的最大同震位错位于主破裂带的都江堰虹口附近，最大垂直位错4.8 m、最大水平右旋位错4.7 m。本文以南坝镇地震地表破裂点附近的建(构)筑物震害调查为例展开，此段地表垂直位错0.5~2.5 m，水平位错1.3~2.0 m，地表强变形带宽度7.6~18 m；相应地，50 m范围内的房屋完好率为0，倒塌率为0.424，中等破坏与严重破坏率为0.576。沿地表破裂带上的15个乡镇的1699栋建(构)筑物震害表明，在距地表破裂迹线距离为150 m范围内的建筑物的倒塌率逐渐下降，即从0.33193降低到0.29264；在距地表破裂迹线距离为250 m范围内的建筑物的完好率逐渐上升，即从0.08824上升到0.1248；超过这样的区域，倒塌率和完好率趋于平缓。从震害指数角度，可以发现，在距地表破裂迹线距离为150 m范围内的建筑物的震害指数逐渐下降，即从0.72降低到0.47344；超过这样的区域，震害指数规律性不明。
Field investigations of the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake show that buildings on the ground surface rupture zone were severely damaged. The surface rupture zone consists of three parts. Two of the parts are respectively along the trace of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault. The former part is about 260 km long, which starts at Yingxiu and terminates at Nanba; the latter part is about 50 km long which starts at Tongji and terminates at Jushui. The third part connects the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault from Xiao Yudong, to Tongji, which is about 6 km long. The maximum vertical and horizontal offset of 4.8 m and 4.7 m, respectively, were observed along the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, whereas a maximum vertical offset of 3.5 m occurred along the Guanxian- Jiangyou fault. The distribution of damaged buildings along the trace of ground surface was investigated in many segments. The seismic damage distribution in Nanba area will be introduced considering that lots of rural residents live there. Vertical and horizontal offset of 0.5 - 2.5 m and 1.3 - 2.7 m, respectively, were observed along this segment, and the significant width of deformation caused by the offset is 7.6 - 18 m. In this segment, the building of intact ratio is zero, the ratio of medium to the serious damage is 0.576 and the collapse ratio is 0.424 within 50 m. Totally 1699 structures were investigated in 15 segments along the ground surface rupture zone. The collapse ratio decreases from 0.33193 to 0.29264 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 150 m. Here the fault distance is defined as a distance from location of structure to the trace line of rupture points; the building of intact ratio increases from 0.08824 to 0.12480 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 250 m. In other way, earthquake damage index of building structure decreases from 0.72 to 0.47344 corresponding to the fault distance 0 to 150 m. There is no significant