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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3759 matches for " Welbourn Alice "
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Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care
Morolake Odetoyinbo,Stephens David,Welbourn Alice
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-12-4
Abstract: Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system.
Discovering T. C. Lethbridge
Terry Welbourn
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/bha.18204
Introducing T. C. Lethbridge
Terry Welbourn
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/bha.18106
Work Experience: Participation or Creation?  [PDF]
Alice Itani
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55052

Where does the successful performance of businesses and organizations mostly stem from? Is it from engagement in work or an effort undergoing imposed expectations? The latter has been a matter of much controversy. Proposals for participation in the workplace were a target of much criticism by Castoriadis and Tragtemberg. Without intending to answer such a predicament, this paper discusses points that seek to contribute to the debate. It analyzes the experience of air traffic controllers, which may be approached not as much as an effort in itself, but as the result of a collective creative process. It is based on research data collected from the past fifteen years from aviation workers, above all from air traffic control centers in S?o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

On the Toponymy of the Iranian Azerbaijan  [PDF]
Alice Assadorian
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.73010
Abstract: The article is a tentative classification of the toponymy of the Turkish speaking Iranian regions, now including Eastern and Western Azerbaijans, Ardabil, Zanjan and Ghazvin Provinces. Based on a comprehensive study the writer did, as of 2008, a database of 12,000 Iranian toponyms was collected from the series of volumes of Farhang-e joγrāfyāyīī-e īrān, (Iranian Geographical Encyclopedia), published by the Persian Army Survey (1949-1982). In addition, information was collected from local private libraries, and scattered articles from patriotic scholars like Ahmad Kasravi1. Finally, to update the data, due to the socio-political developments affecting the toponymy of the country during the recent years, several field studies were also done in the various provinces of Iran including Ardabil, Eastern and Western Azerbaijans, Kurdistan, Gilan, Mazandaran and Khorasan. The collected data were categorized from different aspects regarding the origin of the toponyms, their meanings, and their word formation procedures. This article aims to provide evidence that the original Iranian elements are present in the toponymy of Iran, including all Turkish speaking provinces, and that the linguistic shift from Persian to Turkish in the region, has by no means affected the ethnic Iranian characteristics and identity of its population, against all propaganda to impose Turkish origins and identity to the people of the region. The focus of the study was to locate the common Iranian topoformant suffixes found in the place names throughout the country. The article casts a particular look at the tentative etymology of a place name of the Iranian origin (Sām-aspī), attested in Ardabīl district.
Protection of Design Patents in China and Comparison with European Union Law: How Foreign Companies Can Protect Their Design Patents in China  [PDF]
Alice Graneris
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.101013
Abstract: This paper is mainly focused on a specific aspect of Chinese intellectual property law: design patents and utility models related to foreign companies, especially in automotive and fashion industries. It aims to analyze and examine the protection of design patents and utility models featuring in foreground real cases in China and involving foreign companies, especially European and Italian companies. Holders of intellectual property rights and possible solutions to their cases are the focus and objective of this paper: how foreign companies can face these issues through the existing Chinese intellectual property law and, when Chinese law is not satisfactory enough or when there is a lack, trying to find new possible solutions and suggestions which might be beneficial for foreign companies. Considering interests and concerns which involve foreign companies and their products in the subject matter, Chinese intellectual property law has evolved in the past few years in order to safeguard foreign companies from infringement of their rights, which became quite frequent. Currently the aim of Chinese intellectual property law is not only to prevent lawsuits between foreign and local companies, but also the infringement itself by local companies. Comparing Chinese intellectual property law with European provisions concerning intellectual property rights system, the objective is trying to understand the differences and mostly the advantages that one system can show more than the other one, finding new strategies and remedies, such as updates and solutions that might be useful to insert in the current Chinese intellectual property system and which might be efficient and functional for foreign companies’ business in China as well as to protect their intellectual property rights in the best way.
Genetic Variation in Selenoprotein Genes, Lifestyle, and Risk of Colon and Rectal Cancer
Martha L. Slattery, Abbie Lundgreen, Bill Welbourn, Christopher Corcoran, Roger K. Wolff
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037312
Abstract: Background Associations between selenium and cancer have directed attention to role of selenoproteins in the carcinogenic process. Methods We used data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls) and rectal (n = 754 cases, 959 controls) cancer. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, C11orf31 (SelH), SelW, SelN1, SelS, SepX, and SeP15 with colorectal cancer risk. Results After adjustment for multiple comparisons, several associations were observed. Two SNPs in TXNRD3 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11718498 dominant OR 1.42 95% CI 1.16,1.74 pACT 0.0036 and rs9637365 recessive 0.70 95% CI 0.55,0.90 pACT 0.0208). Four SNPs in SepN1 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11247735 recessive OR 1.30 95% CI 1.04,1.63 pACT 0.0410; rs2072749 GGvsAA OR 0.53 95% CI 0.36,0.80 pACT 0.0159; rs4659382 recessive OR 0.58 95% CI 0.39,0.86 pACT 0.0247; rs718391 dominant OR 0.76 95% CI 0.62,0.94 pACT 0.0300). Interaction between these genes and exposures that could influence these genes showed numerous significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Two SNPs in TXNRD1 and four SNPs in TXNRD2 interacted with aspirin/NSAID to influence colon cancer; one SNP in TXNRD1, two SNPs in TXNRD2, and one SNP in TXNRD3 interacted with aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR) and rectal cancer (SepX1 increased HRR). Conclusions Findings support an association between selenoprotein genes and colon and rectal cancer development and survival after diagnosis. Given the interactions observed, it is likely that the impact of cancer susceptibility from genotype is modified by lifestyle.
Identification and characterization of naturally occurring splice variants of SAMHD1
Welbourn Sarah,Miyagi Eri,White Tommy E,Diaz-Griffero Felipe
Retrovirology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-86
Abstract: Background Sterile Alpha Motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a recently identified host factor that restricts HIV-1 replication in dendritic and myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is a dNTPase that presumably reduces the cellular dNTP levels to levels too low for retroviral reverse transcription to occur. However, HIV-2 and SIV encoded Vpx counteracts the antiviral effects of SAMHD1 by targeting the protein for proteasomal degradation. SAMHD1 is encoded by a multiply spliced mRNA and consists of 16 coding exons. Results Here, we identified two naturally occurring splice variants lacking exons 8–9 and 14, respectively. Like wildtype SAMHD1, both splice variants localize primarily to the nucleus, interact with Vpx, and retain some sensitivity to Vpx-dependent degradation. However, the splice variants differ from full-length SAMHD1 in their metabolic stability and catalytic activity. While full-length SAMHD1 is metabolically stable in uninfected cells, both splice variants were inherently metabolically unstable and were rapidly degraded even in the absence of Vpx. Vpx strongly increased the rate of degradation of full-length SAMHD1 and further accelerated the degradation of the splice variants. However, the effect of Vpx on the splice variants was more modest due to the inherent instability of these proteins. Analysis of dNTPase activity indicates that neither splice variant is catalytically active. Conclusions The identification of SAMHD1 splice variants exposes a potential regulatory mechanism that could enable the cell to control its dNTPase activity on a post-transcriptional level.
The Discrimination of English Vowels by Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong: A Test of the Perceptual Assimilation Model  [PDF]
Alice Y. W. Chan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33025

This article discusses the results of a study which investigated Cantonese ESL learners’ perception of English vowels and their perceived similarity between similar L1 and L2 vowels in an attempt to test the prediction of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM). Forty university English majors participated in three L2 perception tasks, which aimed at discerning their perception of English vowels spoken in different contexts, and one L1 L2 speech perception task, which aimed at discerning their classification of L2 vowels into native vowel categories and their perceived similarity between similar L1 and L2 vowels. It was found that their classifications of English vowels into Cantonese vowels and their perception of the corresponding English vowels did not provide strong support for the prediction of the model. The effects and extent of native language phonological influence are yet to be determined.

What Does “Noise Pollution” Mean?  [PDF]
Alice Elizabeth González
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.54037

Noise features different characteristics that make it different from every other “classic” pollutant. Noise is invisible; it does not smell; it disappears when the source is turned off and leaves no traces in the environment. In addition, when people perceive something wrong about their hearing capacity, it is often long time after the beginning of noise exposure. This fact contributes to strengthening the misconception that noise is not harmful to human health or, at least, efforts and funds aim preferably at controling and decreasing the emission of other pollutants. Adding to this, most people tend to consider that noise is the price to pay for accessing to the amenities of the Technological Era and it is indivisible and inevitably linked to them. Last but not least, noise pollution could adversely affect ecosystems and ecological services. Then, how is it possible to convince the decision makers that noise pollution is one of the major current environmental problems? The aim of this paper is to discuss step by step the applicability of noise of a “pollution” definition, as a way to ease the understanding that lowering environmental noise levels should be prioritized: because it will lead to a healthier and better society.

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