Abstract:
Orbital-free density functional theory as an extension of traditional Thomas-Fermi theory has attracted a lot of interest in the past decade because of developments in both more accurate kinetic energy functionals and highly efficient numerical numerical methodology. In this paper, we developed a new conjugate-gradient method for the numerical solution of spin-dependent extended Thomas-Fermi equation by incorporating techniques previously used in Kohn-Sham calculations. The key ingredient of the new method is an approximate line-search scheme and a collective treatment of two spin densities in the case of spin-dependent ETF problem. Test calculations for a quartic two-dimensional quantum dot system and a three-dimensional sodium cluster,$\mr{Na}_{216}$, with a local pseudopotential demonstrate that the method is accurate and efficient.

Abstract:
We formulate an adiabatic connection for the exchange-correlation energy in terms of pairing matrix fluctuation. This connection opens new channels for density functional approximations based on pairing interactions. Even the simplest approximation to the pairing matrix fluctuation, the particle-particle Random Phase Approximation (pp-RPA), has some highly desirable properties. It has no delocalization error with a nearly linear energy behavior for systems with fractional charges, describes van der Waals interactions similarly and thermodynamic properties significantly better than particle-hole RPA, and eliminates static correlation error for single-bond systems. Most significantly, the pp-RPA is the first known functional that has an explicit and closed-form dependence on the occupied and unoccupied orbitals and captures the energy derivative discontinuity in strongly correlated systems. These findings illlustrate the potential of including pairing interactions within a density functional framework.

Abstract:
The accuracy of calculations of atomic Rydberg excitations cannot be judged by the usual measures, such as mean unsigned errors of many transitions. We show how to use quantum defect theory to (a) separate errors due to approximate ionization potentials, (b) extract smooth quantum defects to compare with experiment, and (c) quantify those defects with a few characteristic parameters. The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) produces excellent Rydberg transitions that are an order of magnitude more accurate than those of time-dependent density functional theory with standard approximations. We even extract reasonably accurate defects from the lithium Rydberg series, despite the reference being open-shell. Our methodology can be applied to any Rydberg series of excitations with 4 transitions or more to extract the underlying threshold energy and characteristic quantum defect parameters. Our pp-RPA results set a demanding challenge for other excitation methods to match.

Abstract:
The recently developed linear combination of atomic potentials (LCAP) approach [M.Wang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128, 3228 (2006)] allows continuous optimization in discrete chemical space and thus is quite useful in the design of molecules for targeted properties. To address further challenges arising from the rugged, continuous property surfaces in the LCAP approach, we develop a gradient-directed Monte Carlo (GDMC) strategy as an augmentation to the original LCAP optimization method. The GDMC method retains the power of exploring molecular space by utilizing local gradient information computed from the LCAP approach to jump between discrete molecular structures. It also allows random Monte Carlo moves to overcome barriers between local optima on property surfaces. The combined GDMC and LCAP approach is demonstrated here for optimizing nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in a class of donor-acceptor substituted benzene and porphyrin frameworks. Specifically, one molecule with four nitrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring was found to have a larger first hyperpolarizability than structures with the conventional porphyrin motif. 1

Abstract:
Kohn-Sham spin-density functional theory provides an efficient and accurate model to study electron-electron interaction effects in quantum dots, but its application to large systems is a challenge. An efficient algorithm for the density-functional theory simulation of quantum dots is developed, which includes the particle-in-the-box representation of the Kohn-Sham orbitals, an efficient conjugate gradient method to directly minimize the total energy, a Fourier convolution approach for the calculation of the Hartree potential, and a simplified multi-grid technique to accelerate the convergence. The new algorithm is tested in a 2D model system. Using this new algorithm, numerical studies of large quantum dots with several hundred electrons become computationally affordable.

Abstract:
We use spin-density-functional theory to study the spacing between conductance peaks and the ground-state spin of 2D model quantum dots with up to 200 electrons. Distributions for different ranges of electron number are obtained in both symmetric and asymmetric potentials. The even/odd effect is pronounced for small symmetric dots but vanishes for large asymmetric ones, suggesting substantially stronger interaction effects than expected. The fraction of high-spin ground states is remarkably large.

Abstract:
Recently, Hohenstein et al[1] introduced tensor hypercontraction density fitting to decompose the rank-4 electron repulsion integral tensor as the product of five rank-2 tensors. In this paper, we use this methodology to construct an algorithm which calculates the approximate ground state energy in O(L^4) operations. We test our method using several small molecules and show that we quickly approach the CISD limit with a small number of auxiliary functions.

Abstract:
In this perspective, we review the chemical information encoded in electron density and other ingredients used in semilocal functionals. This information is usually looked at from the functional point of view: the exchange density or the enhancement factor are discussed in terms of the reduced density gradient. However, what parts of a molecule do these 3D functions represent? We look at these quantities in real space, aiming to understand the electronic structure information they encode and provide an insight from the quantum chemical topology (QCT). Generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) provide information about the presence of chemical interactions, whereas meta-GGAs can differentiate between the different bonding types. By merging these two techniques, we show new insight into the failures of semilocal functionals owing to three main errors: fractional charges, fractional spins, and non-covalent interactions. We build on simple models. We also analyze the delocalization error in hydrogen chains, showing the ability of QCT to reveal the delocalization error introduced by semilocal functionals. Then, we show how the analysis of localization can help understand the fractional spin error in alkali atoms, and how it can be used to correct it. Finally, we show that the poor description of GGAs of isodesmic reactions in alkanes is due to 1, 3-interactions. In this perspective, we review the chemical information encoded in electron density and other ingredients used in semilocal functionals. This information is usually looked at from the functional point of view: the exchange density or the enhancement factor are discussed in terms of the reduced density gradient. However, what parts of a molecule do these 3D functions represent? We look at these quantities in real space, aiming to understand the electronic structure information they encode and provide an insight from the quantum chemical topology (QCT). Generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) provide information about the presence of chemical interactions, whereas meta-GGAs can differentiate between the different bonding types. By merging these two techniques, we show new insight into the failures of semilocal functionals owing to three main errors: fractional charges, fractional spins, and non-covalent interactions. We build on simple models. We also analyze the delocalization error in hydrogen chains, showing the ability of QCT to reveal the delocalization error introduced by semilocal functionals. Then, we show how the analysis of localization can help understand the fractional spin

Abstract:
Electronic states with fractional spins arise in systems with large static correlation (strongly correlated systems). Such fractional-spin states are shown to be ensembles of degenerate ground states with normal spins. It is proven here that the energy of the exact functional for fractional-spin states is a constant, equal to the energy of the comprising degenerate pure spin states. Dramatic deviations from this exact constancy condition exist with all approximate functionals, leading to large static correlation errors for strongly correlated systems, such as chemical bond dissociation and band structure of Mott insulators. This is demonstrated with numerical calculations for several molecular systems. Approximating the constancy behavior for fractional spins should be a major aim in functional constructions and should open the frontier for DFT to describe strongly correlated systems. The key results are also shown to apply in reduced density-matrix functional theory.