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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19637 matches for " Weiche Chang "
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Discrimination of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Black Porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii Using Otolith Elements Analysis of Magnesium and Manganese  [PDF]
Weiche Chang, Chunhan Shih, Huangan Lin, Chiahui Wang, Pinghung Chang, Yingchou Lee
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2019.91002
Abstract: Due to the decreasing resources of both inshore and offshore fisheries, many organizations have released fry to enhance their stock in recent years. The discrimination between wild and hatchery-reared individuals must be performed to assess the efficiency of the release. Fresh groundwater is generally used by hatchers in southwesternTaiwanto decrease salinity and to promote the growth of larvae prior to feeding; thus, the elemental composition of the otolith may be different in stocks, and this difference may be used for identification. This study used Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to analyze the trace elements in the nuclei of otoliths from black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii, including six hatchery reared specimens from the Tainan County, three recaptured marked and ten captured unmarked specimens from the Miaoli County in Northwestern coast of Taiwan. Among the six hatchery and three recaptured marked specimens, which ranged from 4.9 to23.4 cmin body length, the nucleus zone (relative to within5 cmin size growth) of the otoliths showed higher magnesium concentrations than that observed on both edges. The distribution was similar to an inverse “V” shape. The otoliths also showed lower manganese concentrations near the nucleus and had higher values near the edges, resulting in a distribution similar to a “U” shape. According to the appeared shape of Mg2+/Ca2+ and Mn2+/Ca2+ ratio in the central area of the nucleus zone, this study determined six specimens which were from hatchery reared and three specimens were from wild among ten unmarked specimens captured from the Northwestern coast of Taiwan. Under the conditions used in this study, the absorption of calcium into the otolith was active and required energy in the seawater
Prediction of Salinity Variations in a Tidal Estuary Using Artificial Neural Network and Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Models  [PDF]
Weibo Chen, Wencheng Liu, Weiche Huang, Hongming Liu
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2017.61009
Abstract: The simulation of salinity at different locations of a tidal river using physically-based hydrodynamic models is quite cumbersome because it requires many types of data, such as hydrological and hydraulic time series at boundaries, river geometry, and adjusted coefficients. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique using a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is adopted as an effective alternative in salinity simulation studies. The present study focuses on comparing the performance of BPNN, RBFNN, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models as applied to a tidal estuarine system. The observed salinity data sets collected from 18 to 22 May, 16 to 22 October, and 26 to 30 October 2002 (totaling 4320 data points) were used for BPNN and RBFNN model training and for hydrodynamic model calibration. The data sets collected from 30 May to 2 June and 11 to 15 November 2002 (totaling 2592 data points) were adopted for BPNN and RBFNN model verification and for hydrodynamic model verification. The results revealed that the ANN (BPNN and RBFNN) models were capable of predicting the nonlinear time series behavior of salinity to the multiple forcing signals of water stages at different stations and freshwater input at upstream boundaries. The salinity predicted by the ANN models was better than that predicted by the physically based hydrodynamic model. This study suggests that BPNN and RBFNN models are easy-to-use modeling tools for simulating the salinity variation in a tidal estuarine system.
Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor
Miryana Mircheva, Diana Boy, Benjamin Weiche, Friederike Hucke, Peter Graumann, Hans-Georg Koch
BMC Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-7-76
Abstract: In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs) in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo.The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR) in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is almost exclusively membrane-bound in vivo, indicating that the presence of a soluble SR is probably an artefact of cell fractionation. Thus, co-translational targeting in bacteria does not involve the formation of a soluble SR-signal recognition particle (SRP)-ribosome nascent chain (RNC) intermediate but requires membrane contact of FtsY for efficient SRP-RNC recruitment.The signal recognition particle (SRP) dependent targeting constitutes a universally conserved protein targeting pathway that ensures the co-translational delivery of substrates to the membrane-bound Sec translocon [1]. Co-translational targeting is achieved because SRP recognizes its cargo early in translation [2,3]. Subsequently, the SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex (SRP-RNC) is targeted to the membrane-bound SRP receptor (SR) [4,5], which in eukaryotes is composed of two GTPase subunits. SRα is tethered to the ER membrane via the membrane integral SRβ subunit and is responsible for binding the SRP-RNC. However, SRβ is not only required for the anch
Bayesian Decision Analysis for Recurrent Cervical Cancer  [PDF]
Chi-Chang Chang
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.42013
Abstract: Risk modeling for recurrent cervical cancer requires the development of new concepts and methodologies. Unlike most daily decisions, many medical decision making have substantial consequences, and involve important uncertainties and trade-offs. The uncertainties may be about the accuracy of available diagnostic tests, the natural history of the cervical cancer, the effects of treatment in a patient or the effects of an intervention in a group or population as a whole. With such complex decisions, it can be difficult to comprehend all options “in our heads”. This study applied Bayesian decision analysis to an inferential problem of recurrent cervical cancer in survival analysis. A formulation is considered where individual was expected to experience repeated events, along with concomitant variables. In addition, the sampling distribution of the observations is modelled through a proportional intensity Nonhomogeneous Poisson process. The proposed decision models can provide decision support techniques not only for taking action in the light of all available relevant information, but also for minimizing expected loss. The decision process is useful in selecting the best alternative when a patient with recurrent cervical cancer, in particular, the proposed decision process can provide more realistic solutions.
A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Scheduling of Hydrothermal System  [PDF]
Wenping Chang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.24033
Abstract: A fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization (FAPSO) is presented to determine the optimal operation of hydrothermal power system. In order to solve the shortcoming premature and easily local optimum of the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO), the fuzzy adaptive criterion is applied for inertia weight based on the evolution speed factor and square deviation of fitness for the swarm, in each iteration process, the inertia weight is dynamically changed using the fuzzy rules to adapt to nonlinear optimization process. The performance of FAPSO is demonstrated on hydrothermal system comprising 1 thermal unit and 4 hydro plants, the comparison is drawn in PSO, FAPSO and genetic algorithms (GA) in terms of the solution quality and computational efficiency. The experiment showed that the proposed approach has higher quality solutions and strong ability in global search.
Are Securities Also Derivatives?  [PDF]
Kuoping Chang
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.23051
Abstract: This paper has used the Arbitrage Theorem (Gordan Theorem) to show that first, all securities are derivatives for each other, and they are priced by the same risk neutral probability measure. Second, after the firm changes its debt-equity ratio, the equityholders can always combine the new equity with other existing securities to create a home-made equity which will give exactly the same time-1 payoff of the old equity. That is, we have a capital structure irrelevancy proposition: changes in firms’ debt-equity ratios will not affect equityholders’ wealth (welfare), and equityholders’ preferences toward variance are irrelevant. Third, when the firm moves from a more certain project to a more uncertain one, the time-0 price of equity will increase, but (because the time-1 payoff of common bond has an upper bound) the time-0 price of common bond will decrease. Fourth, different labor contractual arrangements will not affect the time-0 price of labor input. When the firm moves from a more certain project to a more uncertain one, the time-0 price of labor input will increase if it is under the share or the mixed contract.
The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism  [PDF]
Fan Chang
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34069
Abstract: Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened before his eyes and to become its mouthpiece. Thus, to understand science in the face of social practice, to analyze everything historically and never to thrust “eternal” laws in any era should be taken as the core of Marx’s new science, which is very important to China today.
The Development History of Chinese TV Audience Ratings and Its Critical Thinking  [PDF]
Qiyun Chang
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.22006
Abstract: Along with Chinese economic system transition from a planned economy to market economy, Chi-nese television audience survey also implements the changes from the audience’s letters, calls, collective and individual interviews in the 1980s, to the TV audience ratings of the 1990s. But the TV audience ratings purely take the AD share and economic interests as the guidance, under the globalization era background, not only can greatly reduce the TV programs quality, but also even-tually lead to the crisis of Chinese traditional culture.
Neutrinos as Superluminal Particles  [PDF]
Tsao Chang
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.412A1002

Based on parity violation in the weak interaction and evidences from neutrino oscillation, a natural choice is that neutrinos may be superluminal particles with tiny mass. To keep causality for Superluminal particles, a kinematic time under a non-standard form of the Lorentz transformation is introduced. A Dirac-type equation for Superluminal neutrinos is further investigated, and its solution is brief discussed. This equation can be written in two spinor equations coupled together via tiny mass while respecting maximum parity violation. As a consequence, parity violation implies that the principle of relativity is violated in the weak interaction.

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR) for Wastewater Treatment  [PDF]
Sheng Chang
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.41008

This paper focuses on the recent research in the development of anaerobic membrane bioreactors in wastewater treatment. Anaerobic wastewater treatment technology is gaining increasing attention due to its capacity to convert wastewater BODs to usable biogas with relatively low energy consumption. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), which is a combination of the anaerobic biological wastewater treatment process and membrane filtration, represents a recent development in the high-rate anaerobic bioreactors. This paper reviews applications and performances of AnMBR and the membrane filtration behaviour in AnMBRs.

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