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Based on the perturbation theory of quantum mechanics, we found that the time for a system to absorb a photon is the period of the light wave. This result gives us an exact definition of a photon, that is, a photon is just a single period of light wave. Furthermore, the detail analysis of the emission and absorption of the light wave in a system tells us that the light wave is not continuous as we believed before but discontinuous instead. Based on this result, we elucidate the origin of the particle-wave duality of the light/electromagnetic wave.