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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6612 matches for " Wayne Anderson "
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Analytic approximation and an improved method for computing the stress-energy of quantized scalar fields in Robertson-Walker spacetimes
Paul R. Anderson,Wayne Eaker
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.61.024003
Abstract: An improved method is given for the computation of the stress-energy tensor of a quantized scalar field using adiabatic regularization. The method works for fields with arbitrary mass and curvature coupling in Robertson-Walker spacetimes and is particularly useful for spacetimes with compact spatial sections. For massless fields it yields an analytic approximation for the stress-energy tensor that is similar in nature to those obtained previously for massless fields in static spacetimes.
A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic clinical trials
Wayne B Jonas, Rachel L Anderson, Cindy C Crawford, John S Lyons
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-1-12
Abstract: In a systematic review, we compared the quality of clinical-trial research in homeopathy to a sample of research on conventional therapies using a validated and system-neutral approach. All clinical trials on homeopathic treatments with parallel treatment groups published between 1945–1995 in English were selected. All were evaluated with an established set of 33 validity criteria previously validated on a broad range of health interventions across differing medical systems. Criteria covered statistical conclusion, internal, construct and external validity. Reliability of criteria application is greater than 0.95.59 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 79% were from peer-reviewed journals, 29% used a placebo control, 51% used random assignment, and 86% failed to consider potentially confounding variables. The main validity problems were in measurement where 96% did not report the proportion of subjects screened, and 64% did not report attrition rate. 17% of subjects dropped out in studies where this was reported. There was practically no replication of or overlap in the conditions studied and most studies were relatively small and done at a single-site. Compared to research on conventional therapies the overall quality of studies in homeopathy was worse and only slightly improved in more recent years.Clinical homeopathic research is clearly in its infancy with most studies using poor sampling and measurement techniques, few subjects, single sites and no replication. Many of these problems are correctable even within a "holistic" paradigm given sufficient research expertise, support and methods.The popularity of complementary, alternative and unconventional medicine is increasing worldwide. Several surveys have estimated that between 30 and 70% of patients in developed countries use these practices, depending on the population and modality. [1-3] There is, however, a paucity of scientific research on many complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices
Discovery of Selective Inhibitors of the Clostridium difficile Dehydroquinate Dehydratase
Kiira Ratia, Samuel H. Light, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Wayne F. Anderson, Michael Caffrey, Arnon Lavie
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089356
Abstract: A vibrant and healthy gut flora is essential for preventing the proliferation of Clostridium difficile, a pathogenic bacterium that causes severe gastrointestinal symptoms. In fact, most C. difficile infections (CDIs) occur after broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, which, by eradicating the commensal gut bacteria, allows its spores to proliferate. Hence, a C. difficile specific antibiotic that spares the gut flora would be highly beneficial in treating CDI. Towards this goal, we set out to discover small molecule inhibitors of the C. difficile enzyme dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD). DHQD is the 3rd of seven enzymes that compose the shikimate pathway, a metabolic pathway absent in humans, and is present in bacteria as two phylogenetically and mechanistically distinct types. Using a high-throughput screen we identified three compounds that inhibited the type I C. difficile DHQD but not the type II DHQD from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a highly represented commensal gut bacterial species. Kinetic analysis revealed that the compounds inhibit the C. difficile enzyme with Ki values ranging from 10 to 20 μM. Unexpectedly, kinetic and biophysical studies demonstrate that inhibitors also exhibit selectivity between type I DHQDs, inhibiting the C. difficile but not the highly homologous Salmonella enterica DHQD. Therefore, the three identified compounds seem to be promising lead compounds for the development of C. difficile specific antibiotics.
Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis
Nicole G. Ertl, Abigail Elizur, Peter Brooks, Anna V. Kuballa, Trevor A. Anderson, Wayne R. Knibb
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056920
Abstract: Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation.
Attractor states and infrared scaling in de Sitter space
Paul R. Anderson,Wayne Eaker,Salman Habib,Carmen Molina-Paris,Emil Mottola
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.62.124019
Abstract: The renormalized expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor for a scalar field with any mass m and curvature coupling xi is studied for an arbitrary homogeneous and isotropic physical initial state in de Sitter spacetime. We prove quite generally that has a fixed point attractor behavior at late times, which depends only on m and xi, for any fourth order adiabatic state that is infrared finite. Specifically, when m^2 + xi R > 0, approaches the Bunch-Davies de Sitter invariant value at late times, independently of the initial state. When m = xi = 0, it approaches instead the de Sitter invariant Allen-Folacci value. When m = 0 and xi \ge 0 we show that this state independent asymptotic value of the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the conserved geometrical tensor (3)H_{ab}, which is related to the behavior of the quantum effective action of the scalar field under global Weyl rescaling. This relationship serves to generalize the definition of the trace anomaly in the infrared for massless, non-conformal fields. In the case m^2 + xi R = 0, but m and xi separately different from zero, grows linearly with cosmic time at late times. For most values of m and xi in the tachyonic cases, m^2 + xi R < 0, grows exponentially at late cosmic times for all physically admissable initial states.
Detection, Quantification, and Microlocalisation of Targets of Pesticides Using Microchannel Plate Autoradiographic Imagers
Mabruka H. Tarhoni,Vasanthy Vigneswara,Marie Smith,Susan Anderson,Peter Wigmore,John E. Lees,David E. Ray,Wayne G. Carter
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16108535
Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a diverse chemical group that includes nerve agents and pesticides. They share a common chemical signature that facilitates their binding and adduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) within nerve synapses to induce cholinergic toxicity. However, this group diversity results in non-uniform binding and inactivation of other secondary protein targets, some of which may be adducted and protein activity influenced, even when only a relatively minor portion of tissue AChE is inhibited. The determination of individual OP protein binding targets has been hampered by the sensitivity of methods of detection and quantification of protein-pesticide adducts. We have overcome this limitation by the employment of a microchannel plate (MCP) autoradiographic detector to monitor a radiolabelled OP tracer compound. We preincubated rat thymus tissue in vitro with the OP pesticides, azamethiphos-oxon, chlorfenvinphos-oxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and malaoxon, and then subsequently radiolabelled the free OP binding sites remaining with 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate (3H-DFP). Proteins adducted by OP pesticides were detected as a reduction in 3H-DFP radiolabelling after protein separation by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative digital autoradiography using the MCP imager. Thymus tissue proteins of molecular weights ~28 kDa, 59 kDa, 66 kDa, and 82 kDa displayed responsiveness to adduction by this panel of pesticides. The 59 kDa protein target (previously putatively identified as carboxylesterase I) was only significantly adducted by chlorfenvinphos-oxon (p < 0.001), chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001), and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.01), the 66 kDa protein target (previously identified as serum albumin) similarly only adducted by the same three pesticides (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.001), and (p < 0.01), and the 82 kDa protein target (previously identified as acyl peptide hydrolase) only adducted by chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001) and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.001), when the average values of tissue AChE inhibition were 30%, 35%, and 32% respectively. The ~28 kDa protein target was shown to be heterogeneous in nature and was resolved to reveal nineteen 3H-DFP radiolabelled protein spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and MCP autoradiography. Some of these 3H-DFP proteins spots were responsive to adduction by preincubation with chlorfenvinphos-oxon. In addition, we exploited the useful spatial resolution of the MCP imager (~70 mm) to determine pesticide micolocalisation in vivo, after animal dosing and
Different forms of glycine- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons
Wayne B Anderson, Brett A Graham, Natalie J Beveridge, Paul A Tooney, Alan M Brichta, Robert J Callister
Molecular Pain , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-5-65
Abstract: Here we compare fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse (P17-37) SDH and DDH using patch-clamp electrophysiology in transverse spinal cord slices (L3-L5 segments, 23°C). GlyR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in 74% (25/34) and 94% (25/27) of SDH and DDH neurons, respectively. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in virtually all neurons in both regions (93%, 14/15 and 100%, 18/18). Several Gly- and GABAAR properties also differed in SDH vs. DDH. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude was smaller (37.1 ± 3.9 vs. 64.7 ± 5.0 pA; n = 25 each), decay time was slower (8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.3 ms), and frequency was lower (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 Hz) in SDH vs. DDH neurons. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs had similar amplitudes (25.6 ± 2.4, n = 14 vs. 25. ± 2.0 pA, n = 18) and frequencies (0.21 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 Hz) in both regions; however, decay times were slower (23.0 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ± 1.8 ms) in SDH neurons. Mean single channel conductance underlying mIPSCs was identical for GlyRs (54.3 ± 1.6 pS, n = 11 vs. 55.7 ± 1.8, n = 8) and GABAARs (22.7 ± 1.7 pS, n = 10 vs. 22.4 ± 2.0 pS, n = 11) in both regions. We also tested whether the synthetic endocanabinoid, methandamide (methAEA), had direct effects on Gly- and GABAARs in each spinal cord region. MethAEA (5 μM) reduced GlyR-mediated mIPSC frequency in SDH and DDH, but did not affect other properties. Similar results were observed for GABAAR mediated mIPSCs, however, rise time was slowed by methAEA in SDH neurons.Together these data show that Gly- and GABAARs with clearly differing physiological properties and cannabinoid-sensitivity contribute to fast synaptic inhibition in mouse SDH and DDH.The superficial and deep laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn, termed SDH and DDH respectively, are important sites for processing sensory information arising in skin, muscle, joints and viscera [1,2]. This information arrives in the dorsal horn via primary afferents, which have specific termination patterns in S
Human Oral Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity by Increasing the Turnover of Microtubules in Caco-2 Cells
Rachel C. Anderson, Wayne Young, Stefan Clerens, Adrian L. Cookson, Mark J. McCann, Kelly M. Armstrong, Nicole C. Roy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078774
Abstract: Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases the expression of intestinal cell tight junction genes and proteins, thereby reducing barrier integrity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Caco-2 cells (model of human intestinal epithelial cells) treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 were used to obtain a global view of the effect of the bacterium on intestinal epithelial cells. Specific functional characteristics by which L. fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity were examined using confocal microscopy, cell cycle progression and adherence bioassays. The effects of TEER-enhancing L. fermentum AGR1485 were investigated for comparison. L. fermentum AGR1487 did not alter the expression of Caco-2 cell tight junction genes (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) and tight junction proteins were not able to be detected. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 increased the expression levels of seven tubulin genes and the abundance of three microtubule-associated proteins, which have been linked to tight junction disassembly. Additionally, Caco-2 cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 did not have defined and uniform borders of zona occludens 2 around each cell, unlike control or AGR1485 treated cells. L. fermentum AGR1487 cells were required for the negative effect on barrier integrity (bacterial supernatant did not cause a decrease in TEER), suggesting that a physical interaction may be necessary. Increased adherence of L. fermentum AGR1487 to Caco-2 cells (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) was likely to facilitate this cell-to-cell interaction. These findings illustrate that bacterial strains of the same species can cause contrasting host responses and suggest that food-safe status should be given to individual strains not species.
The Field X-ray AGN Fraction to z=0.7 from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Daryl Haggard,Paul J. Green,Scott F. Anderson,Anca Constantin,Tom L. Aldcroft,Dong-Woo Kim,Wayne A. Barkhouse
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1447
Abstract: We employ the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the fraction of X-ray-active galaxies in the field out to z = 0.7. We utilize spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS and ChaMP, as well as photometric redshifts from several SDSS catalogs, to compile a parent sample of more than 100,000 SDSS galaxies and nearly 1,600 Chandra X-ray detections. Detailed ChaMP volume completeness maps allow us to investigate the local fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN), defined as those objects having broad-band X-ray luminosities L_X (0.5-8 keV) > 10^42 erg s^-1, as a function of absolute optical magnitude, X-ray luminosity, redshift, mass, and host color/morphological type. In five independent samples complete in redshift and i-band absolute magnitude, we determine the field AGN fraction to be between 0.16 +/- 0.06% (for z < 0.125 and -18 > M_i > -20) and 3.80 +/- 0.92% (for z < 0.7 and M_i < -23). We find striking agreement between our ChaMP/SDSS field AGN fraction and the Chandra cluster AGN fraction, for samples restricted to similar redshift and absolute magnitude ranges: 1.19 +/- 0.11% of ChaMP/SDSS field galaxies with 0.05 < z < 0.31 and absolute R-band magnitude more luminous than M_R < -20 are AGN. Our results are also broadly consistent with measures of the field AGN fraction in narrow, deep fields, though differences in the optical selection criteria, redshift coverage, and possible cosmic variance between fields introduce larger uncertainties in these comparisons.
Probing the Balance of AGN and Star-Forming Activity in the Local Universe with ChaMP
Anca Constantin,Paul Green,Tom Aldcroft,Dong-Woo Kim,Daryl Haggard,Wayne Barkhouse,Scott F. Anderson
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/705/2/1336
Abstract: The combination of the SDSS and the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) currently offers the largest and most homogeneously selected sample of nearby galaxies for investigating the relation between X-ray nuclear emission, nebular line-emission, black hole masses, and properties of the associated stellar populations. We present here novel constraints that both X-ray luminosity Lx and X-ray spectral energy distribution bring to the galaxy evolutionary sequence H II -> Seyfert/Transition Object -> LINER -> Passive suggested by optical data. In particular, we show that both Lx and Gamma, the slope of the power-law that best fits the 0.5 - 8 keV spectra, are consistent with a clear decline in the accretion power along the sequence, corresponding to a softening of their spectra. This implies that, at z ~ 0, or at low luminosity AGN levels, there is an anti-correlation between Gamma and L/Ledd, opposite to the trend exhibited by high z AGN (quasars). The turning point in the Gamma -L/Ledd LLAGN + quasars relation occurs near Gamma ~ 1.5 and L/Ledd ~ 0.01. Interestingly, this is identical to what stellar mass X-ray binaries exhibit, indicating that we have probably found the first empirical evidence for an intrinsic switch in the accretion mode, from advection-dominated flows to standard (disk/corona) accretion modes in supermassive black hole accretors, similar to what has been seen and proposed to happen in stellar mass black hole systems. The anti-correlation we find between Gamma and L/Ledd may instead indicate that stronger accretion correlates with greater absorption. Therefore the trend for softer spectra toward more luminous, high redshift, and strongly accreting AGN/quasars could simply be the result of strong selection biases reflected in the dearth of type 2 quasar detections.
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