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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19100 matches for " Water Shortage "
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Support of Space Techniques for Groundwater Exploration in Lebanon  [PDF]
Amin Shaban
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25054
Abstract: Lebanon is known by the availability in water resources whether on surface or among the existing rock for-mations. However, the status-quo does not reflect this availability due to a number of physical factors, as well as the mismanagement of these resources. Hence, the per capita has been reduced by about 50% in the last three decades. There are sixteen exposed rock formations in Lebanon, two of them are major aquifers and they are characterized by highly fractured and karstified carbonate rocks. Recently, challenges for groundwater in Lebanon have been developed. These are the: overexploitation, climate change and the acute geologic setting, which led to decline in rainfall rate, and thus exacerbated water demand. The existing chal-lenges resulted with a number of problems in ground water resources management, namely: quality deterio-ration, impact on springs and groundwater behavior, loss of groundwater o the sea, saltwater intrusion and exacerbated by the lack of data and mismanagement in water sector. In this respect, new technologies can be utilized as a helpful instrument in managing groundwater resources to treat the unfavorable situation. Space techniques and GIS have been recently raised in several topics on water resources management, including, mainly exploration and monitoring. They proved to be capable to extract hydrogeologic information and thus to manipulate this information in creditable approaches of analysis. This study introduced the present status on the Lebanese groundwater resources and the existing challenges and problems. Thus, it extends an appli-cation from Lebanon on the used new approaches for exploring groundwater.
Present Water Crises in Iraq and Its Human and Environmental Implications  [PDF]
Nadhir Al-Ansari, Nasrat Adamo
Engineering (ENG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2018.106021
Abstract: Iraq is facing a serious water shortage problem now, which has not been experienced before. This is because of the reduction of flow of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers which is due to the implementation of hydrological projects within the upstream part of the catchment and climate change. Mismanagement of water resources within Iraq made the problem graver. It is believed that serious discussion with all riparian countries to reach an agreement to share the water of the two rivers and their tributaries is desperately needed. In addition, a prudent scientific strategy should be implemented and put into practice to overcome this problem in Iraq. In addition, the key positions within the Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources should be given to people having real experience in the water resources sector to ensure discreet and prudent management of the problem.
Solving Water Problems of a Metropolis  [PDF]
Ahmet Mete Saatci
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54A002

The metropolis of Istanbul has faced water supply challenges throughout history; however the situation escalated in the past decade with rapid population growth. Water demand of an ever-growing city could only be solved by transporting water from surrounding water basins as far as 190 km away from the city border. Moreover, imbalanced distribution of water resources and imbalanced water demand on the European and Asian side of the city was resolved by transporting water from Asian side to the European side, by laying water transmission pipes under the Bosphorus Strait and by constructing a tunnel passing 130 m under the Strait. Another difficulty that required challenging solutions was the protection of water reservoirs of the city, hence illegal settlements arose in the reservoir watershed zones due to fast urban growth and migration from rural areas. Discharge of wastewater from illegal settlements caused not only algae growth in water treatment plant (WTP) of one of the largest reservoirs of Istanbul, but also eventual death of algae was a major setback due to anaerobic conditions created in the reservoir. The problem was solved by tertiary treatment of the wastewater and by diverting the effluent through a tunnel away from the reservoir. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into setbacks faced in a metropolis of 14 million and technical solutions provided against the pollution of reservoirs.

Mesopotamian Marshlands: Salinization Problem  [PDF]
Sama AlMaarofi, Ali Douabul, Hamid Al-Saad
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310147
Abstract: Salinization becomes a very serious problem affecting the restoration assessment of the newly re-flooded marshes of the Mesopotamian southern Iraq. From mid-1970 to early-1990, the whole marsh area was influenced by water shortage and desiccation processes. Increasing the average salinity level in the re-flooded marshes is acting versus their recovery progress and significantly affecting their aquatic biota. This study will examine the contributions of dams’ construction and desiccation on increasing the salinity level with in the Mesopotamian marshlands overtime. Water discharge and salinity concentration were monitored in the direct water inputs and outlets of the three marshlands from May 2006 to February 2007 on a monthly basis, while salinity and major ions concentrations including “Ca1+, Mg2+, Cl1-, and SO42-” were monitored in 28 re-flooded marshes from March 2005 to August 2008 on a seasonal basis. The study indicate that increasing the salinity level in the Mesopotamian marshlands is due to three reasons: 1) The overtime increasing in the salinity level of their direct water inputs, due to dams’ constructions; 2) the increase of the Arab Gulf tide via Shatt Al-Arab river due to the reduction of the water level in the outlets of the Central and Al-Hammar marshlands; and 3) the huge accumulation of salts due to desiccation.
Water shortage and wastewater reuse
Wang Jusi,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1990,
Abstract: China is not abandantly supplied with freshwater. Water shortage is a crucial problem in northern China, and affects the development of economy and causes a host of environmental and ecological problems. Water saving, water resource protection, strengthening of management and exploitation of new water resources are some of the major measures for solving the water shortage problem. Wastewater reuse is also a feasible and practical means of alleviating the problem.
El agua, recurso estratégico del siglo XXI: strategic resource in the 21st century
Agudelo C,Ruth Marina;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2005,
Abstract: availability of water becomes more critical and complex from day to day all over the world due to the contamination of this hydric resource, its economical manipulation and its meaning as a source of power for those who own it. the growing demand of water for agriculture, industry and domestic consumption has created competitions which will become more protruding in the next 15 years, owing to the increase in population and to the lack of planning, education and conscience for a wise management and use of it. all of these provoke consequences such as acid grounds, huge amounts of sediments in rivers and lakes, digestive diseases derived from its consumption, and abortion and genetic malformations due to the presence of heavy metal loads in water. the oversized ambition of some economic groups interested in an excessive exploitation of natural resources such as oil, gas and drinkable water make the latter to be a strategic resource in the 21st century, since it is an essential, unique and irreplaceable element that must be preserved for the survival of humankind. in this critical essay the social, political and economic aspects of water are discussed, as it is now envisioned for the near future.
Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options
Theodoros Zachariadis
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2040788
Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices), and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at? 2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the?island.
Aspectos fisiológicos de plantas de milho infectadas por molicutes sob diferentes níveis de água no solo
Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-31312001000300005
Abstract: very few studies can be found concerning the mechanisms of pathogenicity and the effects of mollicutes (spiroplasma and phytoplasma) on maize plants physiology. with this objective it was evaluated in greenhouse, physiological characteristics of plants submitted or not to inoculation with mollicutes and cultivated under different water levels in soil, corresponding to the reposition of 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the total water availability. each experimental plot was set up with a pot contained two plants and repeated six times. in order to accomplish the inoculation, the pathogens vectors leaf hoppers dalbulus maydis, were collected at the field and confined on the seedlings by seven days. the plants symptoms were evaluated, as well as the detection of phytoplasma by pcr and spiroplasma by western blotting. inoculation increased significantly the leaf water potential and the amount of water by unity of dry matter in the plants. this effect is probably due to the interference of pathogens on plant physiology, by producing growth substances, which caused increment on stomatal resistance, leaf transpiration reduction and consequently greater water retention in the tissues. this mechanism could avoid alterations on osmotical concentrations of cells which affects the development of those procaryotes without cell wall. the inoculation increased also the number of ears, which is generally caused by hormonal imbalance and reduced the leaf area, plant height, plant dry weight and final grain weight.
Global Warming Effects on Irrigation Development and Crop Production: A World-Wide View  [PDF]
Daniele De Wrachien, Mudlagiri B. Goli
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.67071
Abstract: Despite the enormous advances in our ability to understand, interpret and ultimately manage the natural world, we have reached the 21st century in awesome ignorance of what is likely to unfold in terms of both the natural changes and the human activities that affect the environment and the responses of the Earth to those stimuli. One certain fact is that the planet will be subjected to pressures hitherto unprecedented in its recent evolutionary history. The “tomorrow’s world” will not simply be an inflated version of the “today’s world”, with more people, more energy consumption and more industry, rather it will be qualitatively different from today in at least three important respects. First, new technology will transform the relationship between man and the natural world. An example is the gradual transition from agriculture that is heavily dependent on chemicals to one that is essentially biologically intensive through the application of bio-technologies. Consequently, the release of bio-engineered organisms is likely to pose new kinds of risks if the development and use of such organisms are not carefully controlled. Second, society will be moving beyond the era of localized environmental problems. What were once local incidents of natural resource impairment shared throughout a common watershed or basin, now involve many neighboring countries. What were once acute, short-lived episodes of reversible damage now affect many generations. What were once straightforward questions of conservation versus development now reflect more complex linkages. The third major change refers to climate variations. It is nowadays widely accepted that the increasing concentration of the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is altering the Earth’s radiation balance and causing the temperature to rise. This process in turn provides the context for a chain of events which leads to changes in the different components of the hydrological cycle, such as evapotranspiration rate, intensity and frequency of precipitation, river flows, soil moisture and groundwater recharge. Mankind is expected to respond to these effects by taking adaptive measures including changing patterns of land use, adopting new strategies for soil and water management and looking for non-conventional water resources (e.g. saline/brackish waters, desalinated water, and treated wastewater). All these problems will become more pronounced in the years to come, as society enters an era of increasingly complex paths towards the global economy. In this context, engineers and decision-makers need to
Effect of water availability on physiological performance and lettuce crop yield (Lactuca sativa)
Molina-Montenegro,Marco A; Zurita-Silva,Andrés; Oses,Rómulo;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202011000100006
Abstract: water is essential for plants, affecting the majority of the physiological processes related to growth and productivity. water shortage is one of the most common factors that limit crop productivity worldwide. many cultivars have elevated water requirements, nevertheless in some countries due to global climate change effects, the availability of water for irrigation is becoming limited. in fact, current models of climate changes predict that central chile will be a sensitive zone where precipitation will drastically decrease. in this study, the variation of gas exchange and production of fresh biomass in a lettuce cultivar, grown under different water availability regimes, was evaluated. additionally, the concentration of total soluble sugar and water use efficiency (wue) as mechanisms related to water shortage responses were also evaluated. overall, individuals with the lowest water availability (50%) showed lower gas exchange and fresh biomass values than their conspecifics grown in optimal irrigated conditions. on the other hand, those individuals with moderate water shortage showed the highest concentration of total soluble sugars and wue. our results suggested that cultures exposed to extensive or intense drought events, could be negatively affected in both physiological performance and productivity. nevertheless, slight decreases in water availability can enable lettuce plants to exhibit a high wue, maintaining high levels of physiological performance and productivity.
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