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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461388 matches for " Wasiu A. Olowu "
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Acute Childhood Cardiorenal Syndrome and Impact of Cardiovascular Morbidity on Survival
Wasiu A. Olowu
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/412495
Abstract: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) clinical types, prevalence, aetiology, and acute cardiovascular morbidity impact on the outcome of acute kidney function perturbation were determined. Forty-seven of 101 (46.53%) patients with perturbed kidney function had CRS. Types 3 and 5 CRS were found in 10 and 37 patients, respectively. Type 3 CRS was due to acute glomerulonephritis (AGN; ), captopril ( ), frusemide ( ), and hypovolaemia ( ). Malaria-associated haemoglobinuria ( ), septicaemia ( ), lupus nephritis ( ), tumour lysis syndrome ( ), and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ( ) caused Type 5 CRS. The cumulative mortality in hypertensive CRS was similar to nonhypertensive CRS (51.4%?versus?40.9%; ). Mortality in CRS and non-CRS was similar (45.7%?versus?24.5%; ). Type 5 survived better than type 3 CRS (66.7% versus 12.5%; ). Risk factors for mortality were Type 3 CRS ( ), AGN-associated CRS ( ), dialysis requiring CRS ( ), and heart failure due to causes other than anaemia ( ). All-cause-mortality was 34.2%. Preventive measures aimed at the preventable CRS aetiologies might be critical to reducing its prevalence. 1. Introduction The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other [1, 2]; it is a recognized morbidity and mortality multiplier in critically ill children [3]. While heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome in which heart disease reduces cardiac output, increases venous pressures, and is accompanied by molecular abnormalities that cause progressive deterioration of the failing heart and premature myocardial cell death [4], acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt clinical and/or laboratory manifestation of kidney dysfunction usually within 48 hours of bilateral kidney insult of any kind. Failure of both organs commonly coexists in critically ill children [5–7]. Congestive HF is a highly prevalent AKI comorbidity and a major indication for acute dialysis in children [5]. Recently, the 7th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) workgroup classified CRS into five distinct clinical types, [1, 2] namely: acute CRS (Type 1)—acute worsening of heart function leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction; chronic CRS (Type 2)—chronic abnormalities in heart function leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction; acute renocardiac syndrome (Type 3)—acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction; chronic renocardiac syndrome (Type 4)—chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease, and/or dysfunction, and
Reversible Renal Failure in Hypertensive Idiopathic Nephrotics Treated with Captopril
Olowu Wasiu,Adenowo Olusola,Elusiyan Jerome
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2006,
Abstract: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)- induced acute renal failure (ARF) is not as commonly reported in children as in adults. We report two cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome that developed ARF following captopril (an ACEI) treatment for prednisolone-induced hypertension. The two cases further alert us to the potential risk of ACEI-induced ARF in any nephrotic child on ACEI treatment. Low or high dose ACEIs should be given with extreme caution in active nephrotics in view of their relative hypovolemic state that may provoke ARF. The nephrotic children, who must be treated with ACEIs with or without diuretics, should be closely monitored for the development of ARF during the use of ACEIs.
Childhood idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in Southwestern Nigeria
Olowu Wasiu,Adelusola Kayode,Adefehinti Olufemi
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Clinical charts of 23 Nigerian children diagnosed with Idiopathic Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (iSRNS) between January 2001 and December 2007 were retrospectively re-viewed to determine their clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome. iSRNS (54.8%) was pri-mary in 19 patients (83%) and secondary in four (17%). The mean age at diagnosis was 8.3 ± 3.5 years (2.1-13 years). Histopathology revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 43.5%, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in 39.1% and mesangial proliferative glo-merulonephritis in 8.7% of the patients while minimal change disease (MCD) and membranous nephropathy accounted for 4.35% each. Routine treatment protocol comprised pulse intravenous (i.v.) cylophosphamide infusion and i.v. dexamethasone lisinopril or spironolactone. Cumulative Com-plete Remission (CR) rate was 57.12%. The overall median time to CR from start of steroid sparing agents in 12/21 treated patients was 4.5 weeks. CR was better achieved in MPGN than FSGS (P = 0.0186). Five patients had eight relapses with the overall median relapse-free duration being four months. Cumulative renal survival at 36 months was 41.8%. The median follow-up duration was eight months. Our study revealed that there was a high prevalence of iSRNS and preponderance of non-MCD lesions, with MPGN and FSGS being the major morphologic lesions. The outcome with steroid and cyclophosphamide-based treatment for iSRNS was further enhanced with addition of either lisinopril or spironolactone.
The Constitutionalization of Local Government in Developing Countries—Analysis of African Experiences in Global Perspective  [PDF]
Dele Olowu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32006
Abstract: The constitutionalization of local government is a distinctive contribution of developing countries to governance reform and the policy and practice of modern public administration. Local governments in most western and industrialized societies are creatures of the national government and are essentially statutory bodies-created, modified and suspended or eliminated at will by the state statutes. In fact, in the Anglo Saxon tradition, these institutions are referred to as local authorities and never local government. In seeking to enhance the capacity of sub-national entities against overbearing central authorities countries as disparate as Brazil, India, Philippines, Bolivia, Colombia, South Korea to mention only a few constitutionalized their local governments. This boosted the status and role of these entities in terms of the policy processes for local level development, services delivery and citizen participation. There have also been a number of challenges—local elite capture or corruption, capacity, coordination, equity and stability issues. However, a consistent overall consequence when properly implemented has been a positive impact on service delivery and the enhancement of the interface between local government and local governance as well as the strengthening of intergovernmental relations. A number of African countries have followed this global good governance practice but the results have been mixed. This paper reviews the experiences of Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Ghana that have all constitutionalized local governments and seek to explain the differential outcomes in each country context. This is an important issue as a number of other countries that have recently initiated fundamental governance changes have incorporated local government reform as a part of the constitutional reform process. These countries include Kenya while a number of other countries in eastern, southern and especially northern parts of the continent are likely to follow this example as they engage the constitutional reform process.
An Experimental Study of Different Effects of EGR Rates on The Performance And Exhaust Emissions of The Stratified Charge Piston Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine
Saheed O. Wasiu,Shaharin A. Sulaiman,A. Rashid A. Aziz
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of the principal techniques used to control spark ignition NOX. A fraction of the exhaust gas is recycled through a control valve from the exhaust to the engine intake system. However, EGR has different effect on performance, combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish such as increase of intake temperature, delay of Rate Of Heat Rrelease (ROHR), decrease of peak heat release, decrease in oxygen concentration etc. Therefore the impact of EGR on the aforementioned engine parameters (i.e., performance, combustion and exhaust emission) is not perfectly understood, especially under high EGR rates. An experimental study has been conducted to analyze various effects of EGR rates on the performance and emissions of the stratified charge piston direct injection compressed natural gas engine and to determine the stable operating limit of the engine at different excess air ratios ( = 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2) which represents rich, stoichiometric, slightly lean and moderately lean mixture respectively. The results showed that as the EGR is increased, the brake torque, brake specific fuel consumption decreased, while nitric oxide emissions (NO) reduced drastically at various fraction of EGR, just as Unburnt Hydro Carbon (UHC) increased. EGR has no significant effect on carbon monoxide (CO) emission. The addition of EGR also reduces cylinder’s gas temperature and pressure. It can be concluded that in introducing EGR in DI-CNG engines, there is a tradeoff between the engine’s performance and NOX emission, while it is difficult to realize stable combustion at high temperature.
Socio-clinical issues in cerebral palsy in Sagamu, Nigeria
T Ogunlesi, M Ogundeyi, O Ogunfowora, A Olowu
South African Journal of Child Health , 2008,
Abstract: Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common neurological disorder of childhood with significant implications. Objective. To determine the socio-clinical characteristics of children with CP at a paediatric neurology clinic in Sagamu, Nigeria. Methods. Hospital records of 92 children attending the clinic between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed. Demographic data were extracted and a validated socio-economic classification of parents was used. Results. The majority of babies had been delivered by primary health workers and traditional birth attendants. The prevalence of CP at the paediatric neurology clinic was 50.3%. Most subjects were aged 1 - 3 years (77.2%), were malnourished (80.4%) and belonged to the lower socio-economic groups (70.6%). The clinical types of CP were spastic (80.4%), hypotonic (12.0%), extrapyramidal (4.3%) and mixed (3.3%). Quadriplegia was the commonest type of spastic CP (66.2%). Asphyxia (57.6%), kernicterus (36.9%) and CNS infections (21.7%) were the leading identified causes. Co-morbidities such as seizures, microcephaly and speech and auditory deficits were present in 90.2% of the subjects. Seizures and microcephaly were commoner among CP cases associated with asphyxia than those associated with kernicterus (p=0.026 and p=0.005, respectively). Limitations. The rarity of prenatal causes of CP in this study may reflect our inability to investigate high-risk pregnancies adequately, particularly for intra-uterine infections. This also emphasises the inability of retrospective studies to adequately identify risk factors. Conclusion. Most patients with CP in this study were of low socio-economic status and had had perinatal problems. Improved perinatal care may reduce the burden of CP. Continuing training of health workers and traditional birth attendants is essential. It is hoped that this study will stimulate well-designed prospective studies.
Energy, Exergy and Economic Analyses of Energy Sourcing Pattern in a Nigerian Brewery  [PDF]
Wasiu Oyediran Adedeji, Ismaila Badmus
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.46054
Abstract: Energy, exergy, and economic analyses of energy sourcing pattern in a Nigerian brewery have been carried out. The mean annual energy efficiencies have varied from 75.62% in 2004 to 81.71% in 2006, while the mean annual exergy efficiencies have varied from 42.66% in 2004 to 57.10% in 2005. Diesel fuel combustion, whether for local electricity generation via internal combustion engines or for process steam raising in boilers, has adversely affected the efficiencies of energy utilisation in the company. The negative effect of steam raising on efficient energy utilisation is more, although steam raising is unavoidable, due to the nature of the company under investigation. The annual mean energy unit costs have also varied from 27.86 USD per Giga-Joule in 2006 to 32.80 USD per Giga-Joule in 2004, confirming the inverse proportion of energy efficiency and costs. On the other hand, the annual mean exergy unit costs have varied from 40.19 USD per Giga-Joule in 2005 to 58.46 USD per Giga-Joule in 2004. The most efficient year has been 2006 energetically and 2005 exergetically. The difference in the two years lies in the proportions of generator diesel and boiler diesel utilised as the system exergy is most sensitive to boiler diesel use while the system energy is more sensitive to generator diesel utilisation due to their different device efficiencies.
From defiance to engagement: An evaluation of Shell’s approach to conflict resolution in the Niger Delta
D Olowu
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: In the course of the lengthy era of military rule in Nigeria, the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd (Shell) enjoyed robust protection from the State, a scenario that largely left the unrelenting demands of the Niger Delta peoples unheeded. Over the last decade, however, Shell has gradually become responsive to the inevitable need of getting involved in State and non-State initiatives for finding sustainable peace in the Niger Delta region. At formal and informal levels, these initiatives are becoming evident although challenges remain. This essay proceeds from the premise that the Niger Delta conflict is not interminable. Extrapolating from the various efforts made by Shell towards resolving its conflicts with the peoples of the Niger Delta, this essay accentuates some of the missing links between top-down efforts and bottom-up initiatives in building sustainable peace in the region. Drawing from learned experiences of Shell’s successes and failures as well as of Nigeria’s power relations and institutional architecture, this essay contends that while compensatory gestures could play a major role in the resolution of conflicts, that approach alone cannot guarantee conflict resolution and reconciliation in the Niger Delta. The overarching outcome of this evaluation is an attempt at identifying the entry points of concerted conflict resolution strategies, with practical focus on the short-, medium- and long-term attainment of peace.
Mainstreaming women, equating men: Charting an inclusionary approach to transformative development in the African decade for women
D Olowu
Law, Democracy & Development , 2011,
Abstract: A great deal of legal and policy foundation has been laid for promoting gender mainstreaming in development and, since the 1995 International Women’s Conference in Beijing, there have been serious attempts to implement this strategy at various levels. Plausible as the concept may be, this article contends that the status of women can only be advanced through gender mainstreaming strategies that are adapted to each specific culture, place and political context. Following the African Union’s declaration of 2010-2020 as the African Decade for Women, some critical questions engage the dominant ideas of gender equality and mainstreaming in the continent’s ongoing development initiatives. Should men be integrated into development programming and policies relating to women? How can male integration be made most beneficial to the goal of transformative development in Africa? Highlighting relevant normative and institutional interventions, the article demonstrates how an inclusionary approach to gender mainstreaming for development in Africa resonates in such areas as education, sexual and reproductive health, fatherhood and families, work and economy, conflict resolution and domestic violence.
Children’s rights, international human rights and the promise of Islamic legal theory
D Olowu
Law, Democracy & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Dejo Olowu looks at religion and its socio-legal implications. He observes that there has been a noticeable growth in the number of writers exploring possible linkages between Islamic legal theory and an international human rights ethos. The article focuses on dimensions of Islamic legal theory pertaining to the rights of children and, more particularly, the potential of this theory to reinforce the understanding of children’s rights within the context of international human rights. While dealing with issues broadly, it evaluates Islamic legal understanding of the rights of the unborn child in some detail, arguing that the Sharia includes not only law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child. Moreover, Islam provides enforceable sanctions as well as religious and social measures to promote the welfare of the child. Islamic law, it is concluded, contains extensive provisions that can reinforce global advocacy for the promotion of the rights and welfare of children.
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