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The Most Distant Stars in the Milky Way
John J. Bochanski,Beth Willman,Nelson Caldwell,Robyn Sanderson,Andrew A. West,Jay Strader,Warren Brown
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/790/1/L5
Abstract: We report on the discovery of the most distant Milky Way (MW) stars known to date: ULAS J001535.72$+$015549.6 and ULAS J074417.48$+$253233.0. These stars were selected as M giant candidates based on their infrared and optical colors and lack of proper motions. We spectroscopically confirmed them as outer halo giants using the MMT/Red Channel spectrograph. Both stars have large estimated distances, with ULAS J001535.72$+$015549.6 at $274 \pm 74$ kpc and ULAS J074417.48$+$253233.0 at 238 $\pm$ 64 kpc, making them the first MW stars discovered beyond 200 kpc. ULAS J001535.72$+$015549.6 and ULAS J074417.48$+$253233.0 are both moving away from the Galactic center at $52 \pm 10$ km s$^{-1}$ and $24 \pm 10$ km s$^{-1}$, respectively. Using their distances and kinematics, we considered possible origins such as: tidal stripping from a dwarf galaxy, ejection from the MW's disk, or membership in an undetected dwarf galaxy. These M giants, along with two inner halo giants that were also confirmed during this campaign, are the first to map largely unexplored regions of our Galaxy's outer halo.
The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms
Warren Caldwell, Opal A. McInnis, Robyn J. McQuaid, Gele Liu, John D. Stead, Hymie Anisman, Shawn Hayley
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065547
Abstract: Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124), childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied to coping styles, and hence less likely to be translated into depressive states.
Volatile Organic Compounds in Alberta, Canada Residences—Evidence from Community Surveys  [PDF]
Warren Kindzierski
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329136
Abstract: The impact of the built environment on public health is complex, involving several determinants of health including indoor air quality. People who spend the most time indoors can be exposed to indoor air pollutants for long periods of time. These are often the same people who are most susceptible to adverse effects if exposures are high enough (young children, elderly, and chronically ill, especially those suffering from respiratory diseases). An analysis of data on selected indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from community studies in Alberta, Canada was undertaken. Measures of typical (central tendency) and high end (upper limit) indoor concentrations were estimated from seven studies in Alberta. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for 12 VOCs—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene—were less than 5 μg/m3. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for three VOCs—toluene, m/p-xylene, and limonene—were greater than 5 μg/m3. In the case of best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, hexane, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethylene had upper limit concentrations less than 15 μg/m3. Best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations for toluene, m/p xylene, decane, limonene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were greater than 15 μg/m3. Upper limit concentrations observed inside Alberta residences were about 4 to 10 times higher than typical concentrations for most of the VOCs observed. Upper limit indoor concentrations for carbon tetrachloride and benzene in Alberta are similar to or greater than levels judged by US EPA to imply a concern for potential cancer effects. This indicates that some homes in Alberta can have levels of carbon tetrachloride and benzene that may be of concern from a public health point-of-view.
The Greenhouse Effect: An Evaluation of Arrhenius’ Thesis and a New Energy Equilibrium Model  [PDF]
Warren Stannard
Natural Science (NS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2018.101001
Abstract: In 1896, Svante Arrhenius proposed a model predicting that increased concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere would result in a warming of the planet. In his model, the warming effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapour in preventing heat flow from the Earth’ s surface (now known as the “Greenhouse Effect”)?are?counteracted by a cooling effect where the same gasses are responsible for the radiation of heat to space from the atmosphere. His analysis found that there was a net warming effect and his model has remained the foundation of the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect—Global Warming hypothesis. This paper attempts to quantify the parameters in his equations but on evaluation his model cannot produce thermodynamic equilibrium. A modified model is proposed which reveals that increased atmospheric emissivity enhances the ability of the atmosphere to radiate heat to space overcoming the cooling effect resulting in a net cooling of the planet. In consideration of this result, there is a need for greenhouse effect—global warming models to be revised.
Expect tuna slosh
R Caldwell
South African Medical Journal , 2006,
A rock carving and a newly discovered stone burial chamber at Pasemah, Sumatra
Ian Caldwell
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 1997,
Power, state and society among the pre-islamic Bugis
Ian Caldwell
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 1995,
Gunhild Agger & Jens F Jensen (red.): The Aesthetics of Television
John Caldwell
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2003,
Programproduktion som Kritisk Teori – eller tv-teksten som industriel iscenes ttelse
John Caldwell
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2003,
Abstract: Denne artikel peger p n dvendigheden af en revurdering af den tre-delte model, som Fiske og Gripsrud har fremf rt, ved at vise, hvorledes ‘sekund re’ og ‘terti re’ tv-tekster uafladeligt bev ger sig eller rejser hen imod en ‘prim r’ tekstuel status i det amerikan- ske multikanals- flow . En detaljeret gennemgang af industriens tekstuelle praksis – programbegivenheder, network-branding, ka- nallogoer, filmene bag filmen, pressemateriale p video, salgsma- teriale og tilgr nsende digitale medier – viser hvorledes industrien teoretiserer sine egne vilk r direkte p sk rmen, og dermed ogs hvordan publikum vejledes igennem en s dan offentlig cirkulation af inside -viden om tv-systemet. Artiklen er oversat af Henrik B dker.
Sensational Studies
Peter Caldwell
Cultural Studies Review , 2011,
Abstract: A review of David Howes (ed.), Empire of the Senses: The Sensual Culture Reader (Berg, Oxford, 2005) and Constance Classen (ed.), The Book of Touch (Berg, Oxford, 2005).
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