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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 312558 matches for " Walter J. Christensen Jr. "
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Relativized Quantum Physics Generating N-Valued Coulomb Force and Atomic Hydrogen Energy Spectrum  [PDF]
Walter J. Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.63025
Abstract: Though not well-known, Einstein endeavored much of his life to general-relativize quantum mechanics, (rather than quantizing gravity). Albeit he did not succeed, his legacy lives on. In this paper, we begin with the general relativistic field equations describing flat spacetime, but stimulated by vacuum energy fluctuations. In our precursor paper, after straightforward general relativistic calculations, the resulting covariant and contravariant energy-momentum tensors were identified as n-valued operators describing graviton excitation. From these two operators, we were able to generate all three boson masses (including the Higgs mass) in precise agreement as reported in the 2010 CODATA (NIST); moreover local, as-well-as large-scale, accelerated spacetimes were shown to naturally occur from this general relativized quantum physics approach (RQP). In this paper, applying the same approach, we produce an n-valued Coulombs Force Law leading to the energy spectrum for atomic hydrogen, without assuming quantized atomic radii, velocity and momentum, as Bohr did.
God Is a Porcupine—Brain, Consciousness and Spacetime Physics  [PDF]
Walter J. Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.88084
Abstract: Whereas the human body requires a vast numbers of atoms to maintain its intricate anatomical functions, we assert that the human brain requires “something extra” to carry out its higher mental and emotional functions. Recently, neuroscientists are beginning to suspect brain cells are not fast enough, or intricate enough, to correlate complex spatiotemporal information into cognitive understanding. They conclude that spacetime fields may be necessary to assist the brain during neurological processing—in much the same way magnetic and electric fields are essential for the propagation of light. This “something extra,” we argue, is spacetime itself—where structures in the brain, called facilitators (somewhat like Descartes pineal gland), have evolved biologically in such a way, so as to be able to store and retrieve spacetime quanta for the formation and generation of consciousness and memory. In this way, cognition is not a thing complete. Rather it is emergent, and accumulates as discretized spacetime quanta in the brain so rapidly, we perceive our own awareness to be continuous, events spontaneous. In this paper, we consider spacetime to be a field (like all quantum fields), which can be excited into quanta particles called gravitons. We then apply this quanta excitation to help explain the brain’s cognitive processes. If the brain has indeed evolved to interact with discretized spacetime, then with the advent of improved functional imaging equipment, we might be able to map detailed correlations between neural processes, conscious experience and spacetime. In so doing, it might be possible to learn more about the fundamental workings of spacetime itself.
Haar Wavelets and the Origin of Gravitational Inertia
Walter J. Christensen Jr
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Spacetime is considered to be everywhere Minkowski except at the location where a signal wave of energy interacts with the gravitational field. The conformal metric f[k(x-vt)]Nuv is suitably chosen to represent this interaction, where f[k(x-vt)]is a generalized wave or signal function. Parametrized and Taylor expanded at zero, the spacetime metric is transformed into a Haar wavelet having parameter width tau. Applying the Haar metric to the time component of General Relativistic wave equation reduces it from a second ordered covariant differential equation to a first ordered partial differential equation that allows the Einstein Tensor to be easily be expressed in the familiar Poisson form for gravitation. By comparison with the matter density of this equation, to the Haar-Einstein result, shows that the wavelength of a graviton becomes the fundamental source for gravitational attraction. Since the signal wave is unidirectional, it strongly supports Machs assumption that inertia arises from all the matter in the universe. Furthermore, because the Haar metric is conformal, the signal metric is solved for exactly.
Normal Coordinates Describing Coupled Oscillations in the Gravitational Field
Walter J. Christensen Jr
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s10714-006-0360-8
Abstract: The motion of a local source inducing small oscillations in the gravitational field is investigated and shown to exhibit pure rotational kinetic energy. Should the net affect of these slow, revolving oscillations cause large-scale rotations in spacetime it would certainly result in anomalous celestial accelerations. When this angular rotational frequency of spacetime is applied to the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10/11 spacecrafts, the correlation is promising.
Light Dragging, the Origin of Hubble's Constant
Walter J. Christensen Jr
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Recently E. Harrison has argued the Red Shift distance law proposed by Hubble and velocity-distance law developed later on theoretical grounds has no general proof demonstrating the two laws are actually equivalent. It is the purpose of this paper to account for the nebular redshift law of Hubble based on two principles: 1) Spacetime motion and light dragging. 2) An overall spacetime index of refraction based on Hubble's Constant.
Completing the Standard Model with Gravity by General Relativizing Quantum Physics (RQP) (Coupling Spin-2 Gravitons with Spin-0 Particles to Generate Higgs Mass)  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613203
Abstract: After a straightforward general relativistic calculation on a modified flat-spacetime metric (developed from the fluctuating vacuum energy interacting with a graviton field), a pair of n-valued covariant and contravariant energy momentum tensors emerged analogous to quantized raising and lower operators. Detaching these operators from the general relativistic field equations, and then transporting them to act on extreme spacetimes, these operators were able to generate fundamental particle boson masses. In particular, the operators precisely generated Higgs mass. Then by applying a consistency approach to the gravitational field equations—similar to how Maxwell applied to the electromagnetic ones—it allowed for the coupling of spin-to-mass, further restricting the particle mass to be in precise agreement with CODATA experimental values. Since this is a massless field approach integrated discretely with a massive one, it overcomes various renormalizing difficulties; moreover it solves the mass hierarchal problem of the Standard Model of particle physics, and generates its spin and therefore shows quantum physics to be a subset of General Relativity, just as Einstein had first imagined.
Calculating God from the God Particle  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.72024
Abstract: Can the existence of “God” be calculated from known science and mathematics? We argue yes, provided the question is restricted to whether or not memory and consciousness are properties of spacetime. In this sense, we are seeking the god of Spinoza and Einstein, where the Universe is thought to be identical with divinity—but with the added characteristic of “awareness”. Currently, memory and consciousness and their relationship to spacetime and matter are of great interest to many prominent physicist, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and philosophers. To show “Space-time Thinks,” we begin with a thought experiment formulated in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell— together with Leó Szilárd’s discovery that memory and information are intimately related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Finally, we verify that memory and consciousness are properties of spacetime through an analogous Maxwell-Szilárd thought experiment associated with the creation of the God Particle—Higgs boson.
Thermodynamic Behavior of a Perfect Fluid with Negative Energy Density
Walter Christensen Jr
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Starting from a perfect cosmological fluid represented by the energy momentum tensor T_uv, one class of frequency metrics that satisfies both Einstein's general relativistic equation and the perfect fluid condition is: g_uv = e^iwt N_uv. Mathematically, such metrics indicate spacetime behaves locally like a simple harmonic oscillator. In the cosmological model presented here these small spacetime oscillations compress vacuum energy into a standing wave inside a dynamic Casimir cavity. At peak compression a phase shift occurs and the standing wave forms into a particle having relativistic mass-energy equal to the compressive work required to produce it. At this point the newly formed particle does isobaric work to expand the volume against the external pressure given T_ii. Equilibrium is achieved when the collision rate on the volume's internal and external surfaces equalizes. By treating spacetime as a classical thermodynamic problem and oscillator, such quantities as the mass of the compressed particle--that of an axion, the radii of the initial and final volume of compression, and the angular frequency of compression can be determined. During axion collision the photon frequency of the particle is calculated to be in the microwave range and inversely equal to that of the frequency of the spacetime compression that produced the particle. This suggests axion production is a source for the 2.7K cosmic background radiation and dark matter that pervades spacetime.
Redshift and the Rotating Gravitational Field
Walter James Christensen Jr
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Previously it was shown that if a weak gravitational field is modeled as a background of oscillating gravitons described by normal coordinates, then the field naturally exhibits rotational kinetic energy. The conformal metric associated with this oscillatory motion is given by g{\mu}{\nu} = ei{\omega}t {\eta}{\mu}{\nu}, and the corresponding energy momentum tensor by T{\mu}{\nu} = $frac{1}{2}$ I{\omega}2 {\eta}{\mu}{\nu}. In this paper the metric is extended to include constant radiant energy thereby amending the spacetime metric to: g{\mu}{\nu} = ei({\omega}+{\rho})t {\eta}{\mu}{\nu}. The energy momentum tensor then becomes: T{\mu}{\nu} = [$frac{1}{2}$ I{\omega}2 + (3c2/16G)({\rho}2 + 2n{\omega}{\rho})]. Analyzing this energy equation at the microscopic level, where energies are assumed to become discrete, it is found a photon of frequency {\nu}0 traversing through a rotating gravitational field (having frequency {\nu}g) becomes coupled to the field and redshifted by the amount {\nu}' = {\nu}0 - r ({\nu}0 {\nu}g)1/2.
Einstein’s Gravitational Field Approach to Dark Matter and Dark Energy—Geometric Particle Decay into the Vacuum Energy Generating Higgs Boson and Heavy Quark Mass  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.610147
Abstract: During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, “according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge … as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field” [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.
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