Abstract:
CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote.

In relativistic quantum mechanics, elementary particles are
described by irreducible unitary representations of the Poincaré group. The
same applies to the center-of-mass kinematics of a multi-particle system that
is not subject to external forces. As shown in a previous article, for spin-1/2
particles, irreducibility leads to a correlation between the particles that has
the structure of the electromagnetic interaction, as described by the
perturbation algorithm of quantum electrodynamics. The present article examines
the consequences of irreducibility for a multi-particle system of spinless
particles. In this case, irreducibility causes a gravitational force, which in
the classical limit is described by the field equations of conformal gravity.
The strength of this force has the same order of magnitude as the strength of
the empirical gravitational force.

General relativity predicts a
singularity in the beginning of the universe being called big bang. Recent
developments in loop quantum cosmology avoid the singularity and the big bang
is replaced by a big bounce. A classical theory of gravitation in flat
space-time also avoids the singularity under natural conditions on the density
parameters. The universe contracts to a positive minimum and then it expands
during all times. It is not symmetric with regard to its minimum implying a
finite age measured with proper time of the universe. The space of the universe
is flat and the total energy is conserved. Under the assumption that the sum of
the density parameters is a little bit bigger than one the universe is very hot
in early times. Later on, the cosmological model agrees with the one of general
relativity. A new interpretation of a non-expanding universe may be given by
virtue of flat space-time theory of gravitation.

The S matrix of e-e scattering has the structure of a projection operator that projects incoming separable product states onto entangled two-electron states. In this projection operator the empirical value of the fine-structure constantαacts as a normalization factor. When the structure of the two-particle state space is known, a theoretical value of the normalization factor can be calculated. For an irreducible two-particle representation of the Poincaré group, the calculated normalization factor matches Wyler’s semi-empirical formula for the fine-structure constantα. The empirical value ofα, therefore, provides experimental evidence that the state space of two interacting electrons belongs to an irreducible two-particle representation of the Poincaré group.

Abstract:
A covariant theory of gravitation in flat space-time is stated and compared with general relativity. The results of the theory of gravitation in flat space-time and of general relativity agree for weak gravitational fields to low approximations. For strong fields the results of the two theories deviate from one another. Flat space-time theory of gravitation gives under some natural assumptions non-singular cosmological models with a flat space. The universe contracts to a positive minimum and then it expands for all times. Shortly, after the minimum is reached, the cosmological models of two theories approximately agree with one another if models in general relativity with zero curvature are considered. A flat space is proved by experiments.

Abstract:
Static, spherically symmetric bodies are
studied by the use of flat space-time theory of gravitation. In empty space a
singularity at a Euclidean distance from the centre can exist. But the radius
of this singular sphere is smaller than the radius of the body. Hence, there is
no event horizon, i.e. black holes do
not exist. Escape of energy and information is possible. Flat space-time theory
of gravitation and quantum mechanics do not contradict to one another.

Abstract:
A theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous, isotropic cosmological models. There are non-singular cosmological models. A natural interpretation is a non-expanding universe. The redshift is an intrinsic effect and not a Doppler effect. The universe contains only energy in the beginning, i.e. no matter exists. In the course of time matter and radiation are created from energy where the whole energy is conserved. Matter increases with time but a certain time after the beginning of the universe the creation of matter is finished and the universe appears like a static one. A modified Hubble law is considered which may explain the high redshifts of objects in the universe without the assumption of dark energy.

Abstract:
General relativity (GR) and gravitation in flat space-time (GFST) are covariant theories to describe gravitation. The metric of GR is given by the form of proper-time and the metric of GFST is the flat space-time form different from that of proper-time. GR has as source the matter tensor and the Einstein tensor describes the gravitational field whereas the source of GFST is the total energy-momentum including gravitation and the field is described by a non-linear differential operator of order two in divergence form. The results of the two theories agree for weak gravitational fields to the order of measurable accuracy. It is well-known that homogeneous, isotropic, cosmological models of GR start from a point singularity of the universe, the so called big bang. The density of matter is infinite. Therefore, our observable universe implies an expansion of space, in particular an inflationary expansion in the beginning. This is the presently most accepted model of the universe although doubts exist because infinities don’t exist in physics. GFST starts in the beginning from a homogeneous, isotropic universe with uniformly distributed energy and no matter. In the course of time, matter is created out of energy where the total energy is conserved. There is no singularity. The space is flat and the space may be non-expanding.

Abstract:
General relativity (GR) and gravitation in flat space-time (GFST) are covariant theories to describe gravitation. The metric of GR is given by the form of proper-time and the metric of GFST is a flat space-time form different from that of proper-time. The source of GR is the matter tensor and the Einstein tensor describes the gravitational field. The source of GFST is the total energymomentum including gravitation. The field is described by a non-linear differential operator of order two in divergence form. The results of the two theories agree for weak gravitational fields to the order of measurable accuracy. It is well-known that homogeneous, isotropic, cosmological models of GR start from a point singularity of the universe, the so called big bang. The density of matter is infinite. Therefore, our observable big universe implies an expansion of space, in particular an inflationary expansion in the beginning. Doubts are stated because infinities don’t exist in physics. An explanation to the present, controversial discussion of expanding accelerating or non-accelerating universe as well as non-expanding universe is given. GFST starts in the beginning from a homogeneous, isotropic universe with uniformly distributed energy and no matter. In the course of time matter is created out of energy where the total energy is conserved. There is no singularity, i.e. no big bang. The space is flat and non-expanding.

Abstract:
Gravitation in flat space-time is described as field and studied in several articles. In addition to the flat space-time metric a quadratic form formally similar to that of general relativity defines the proper-time. The field equations for the gravitational field are non-linear differential equations of second order in divergence form and have as source the total energy-momentum tensor (inclusive that of gravitation). The total energy-momentum is conserved. It implies the equations of motion for matter in this field. The application of the theory gives for weak fields to measurable accuracy the same results as general relativity. The results of cosmological models are quite different from those of general relativity. The beginning of the universe starts from uniformly distributed gravitational energy without matter and radiation which is generated in the course of time. The solution is given in the pseudo-Euclidean metric, i.e. space is flat and non-expanding. There are non-singular solutions, i.e. no big bang. The redshift is a gravitational effect and not a Doppler effect. Gravitation is explained as field with attractive property and the condensed gravitational field converts to matter, radiation, etc. in the universe whereas the total energy is conserved. There is no contraction and no expansion of the universe.