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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1786 matches for " Walsh Tanya "
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Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard
Uriana Boye, Tanya Walsh, Iain A Pretty, Martin Tickle
BMC Oral Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-10
Abstract: 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated.The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%.The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.
Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children
Boye Uriana,Pretty Ian A,Tickle Martin,Walsh Tanya
BMC Oral Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-6
Abstract: Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs) for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were 1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and 2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and 2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and 2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year-olds. Conclusions The photographic assessment method, particularly assessment of 8 intra-oral digital photographs is comparable to the visual examination method in the primary dentition. With the additional benefits of archiving, remote scoring, allowing multiple scorers to score images and enabling longitudinal analysis, the photographic assessment method may be used as an alternative caries detection method in the primary dentition in situations where the visual examination method may not be applicable such as when examiner blinding is required and in practice based randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture  [PDF]
Tanya Chauhan, Kumar Rajiv
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.14037
Abstract: Genetic variation in a species enhances the capability of organism to adapt to changing environment and is necessary for survival of the species. Genetic variation arises between individuals leading to differentiation at the level of population, species and higher order taxonomic groups. The genetic diversity data has varied application in research on evolution, conservation and management of natural resources and genetic improvement programmes, etc. Development of Molecular genetic markers has powerful ability to detect genetic studies of individuals, populations or species. These molecular markers combined with new statistical developments have revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Molecular markers and their statistical analysis revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Various molecular markers, protein or DNA (mt-DNA or nuclear DNA such as microsatellites, SNP or RAPD) are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture. These markers provide various scientific observations which have importance in aquaculture practice recently such as: 1) Species Identification 2) Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations 3) Comparison between wild and hatchery populations 4) Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population 5) Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes. In this review article, we have concentrated on the basics of molecular genetics, overview of commonly used markers and their application along with their limitations (major classes of markers) in fisheries and aquaculture studies.
Family History of Cancer and Smoking Cessation, Is There a Role for Physicians?  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31002
Abstract: Aim: This study aims to investigate the relationships among family history of cancer, physician’s advice on quitting, and motivation to quit among smokers in the United State. Method: This study using data collected by the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Five separate sets of multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the three-direction relationships among: 1) effect of family cancer history on medical doctors’ advice on quitting, 2) effect of family cancer history on motivation to quit smoking, 3) effect of doctor’s advice on smokers’ motivation to quit. Results: Smoking cessation advice given by physicians has a significant effect on both smoker’s motivation and action taken to quit smoking, but a large proportion of the smokers with family cancer history did not receive doctor’s advice on quitting. Conclusion: Family history of lung cancer or other cancer types was not found to be associated with increased motivation to quit smoking. This is at least partly due to poor collection of family cancer history by physicians. This may be ameliorated by promoting the use of a recently developed self-administered tool for the collection of patient data on family cancer history in primary care settings.
Pattern of mental health service use and risk of injury: A longitudinal study  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21014
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between mental health treatment patterns and risk of injuries among a Western Australian male birth cohort. Method: A population-based birth-cohort of males born between 1980 and 1984 in Western Australia was followed up using linked health data. Results: Participants with mental health conditions were at an increased risk of injury. Those with a continuous mental health treatment pattern without interruption or window periods had lower risk of injury compared to those with treatment interruption or window periods. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence interval) for injury among participants: 1) without a mental condition, 2) with a previous mental condition, 3) with a mental condition in the last four years and without interruption in their mental health treatment, and 4) with a mental condition in the last four years with interruptions in mental health service, were 0.38 (0.35 - 0.40), 0.77 (0.71 - 083), 1.0 (reference group) and 2.06 (1.72 - 2.47) respectively. Conclusion: Increasing resources for mental health services and enabling sufficient continuous mental health services and follow-up may reduce the risk of injury among populations with mental health conditions.
Asthma and Injury Risk: A Large Scale Population-Based Study  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35074
Abstract: Purpose: Clinical data suggest that asthma impairs sleep quality and further impairs cognitive performance during the daytime, while there is a causal relationship between impaired sleep quality and injuries. Therefore asthma patients may have increased risk of injury, and this is supported by our recent population-based studies conducted in Australia. This study is to investigate the effect of asthma on the risk of injury at the population level using data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey collected in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Method: Data from the 2008, 2009 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys were combined and analyzed together. Results: U.S. adults with current or previous asthma had significantly greater risk of injury compared to those without asthma. The risk of injury was also significantly higher among children with current asthma. Conclusion: This population-based study provided further evidence on the positive association between asthma and risk of injury among both adults and children. The increased risk of injury among asthma patients is at least partly due to impaired sleep quality and quantity caused by asthma symptoms and asthma medications.
Asthma history predicts the risk of affective disorders and anxiety disorders  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52A042

Background: Positive associations between asthma and a range of mental disorders have been increasingly reported in cross-sectional studies. It is important to determine whether the association between asthma and mental disorders may be causal. Objectives: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data collected from the 2007 Australia Mental Health and Wellbeing survey (MHW) to examine whether preexisting asthma may predict the likelihood of various types of anxiety disorders and affective disorders. Design, Settings and Subjects: The 2007 MHW survey was a nationally representative household survey. Its data included 8841 Australian adults aged 18 - 85 yrs. Age at first onset of asthma and mental disorders were used to reveal the order of occurrence of asthma and mental disorders, and to define time at risk and asthma exposure. Kaplan-Meier failure function and multivariate Poisson regression models were employed in analysis. Results: Participants who had a history of asthma that lasted six months or more were at higher risk of panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, mania and hypomania. The association between asthma history and risk of mental disorder subtypes differed by gender. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the hypothesis that pre-existing asthma increases the risk of a number of anxiety disorders and affective disorders. Predisposition to carbon dioxide hypersensitivity and corticosteroid therapy may partly explain the observed associations.

Sleep Duration and Its Links to Psychological Distress, Health Status, Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among a Large Representative General Population Sample  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.41010
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate associations between: (a) psychological distress, self-perceived health status and sleep duration among a large representative general population sample; and (b) patterns of sleep duration, physical activity and Body Mass Index among a subgroup of participants who self-reported as being in good health with low psychological distress. Data collected from six waves of the Nation Health Interview Surveys (NHISs) was employed. The results indicated that both psychological distress and self-perceived health status were strong predictors of sleep duration. Participants with high serious psychological distress scores reported sleeping 7 - 8 hours less often than those in low or moderate psychological distress and were also most likely to sleep for less than 6 hours or 9 or more hours. Similar patterns were observed for sleep duration by self-reported health status. Subgroup analysis including only participants in self-reported excellent or very good physical health with low mental distress scores showed that participants who engaged in higher frequencies of vigorous and strengthening exercises were more likely to sleep less than six hours, and participants with a BMI of 25 or higher were also more likely to sleep less than six hours.
Motives for romantic relationships and the risk of heavy alcohol use, regular smoking and cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood: A longitudinal study  [PDF]
Wenbin Liang, Tanya Chikritzhs
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2013.32006

Background: Engaging in sexual activities at a younger age is associated with higher risk of substance misuse among adolescents. It could be hypothesized that substance misuse and certain romantic relationship related behaviors may be influenced by similar hormone and other inner physiological factors that are affected by related motives. This study investigated the association between motives for romantic relationships and the risk of heavy alcohol use, regular smoking and cannabis use from adolescence through to early adulthood. Method: A population-based longitudinal study using data collected from Wave I and Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Characteristics of romantic relationship ideals (as the proxy of motives) measured in Wave I (mean age: 16 yrs) were applied to predict substance use indicated at Wave III (mean age: 22 yrs) using multivariate analyses. Results: Adolescents who included sexual activities as part of their romantic relationship ideals were at significantly higher risk of cannabis use among males and heavy alcohol use among females. Romantic ideals that included, gift giving (female) or receiving (male), declaration of love (male), marriage (male) and becoming pregnant (female) were associated with reduced risk of one or more types of substance use. Conclusion: In adolescence, sexual motives for romantic relationships were associated with higher risk of substance use and misuse, while motives related to intimacy and commitment in romantic relationships were associated with lower risk.

How “Commonsense” Notions of Race, Class and Gender Infiltrate Families Formed across the Color Line  [PDF]
Eileen T. Walsh
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21010
Abstract: This research presents data from in-depth interviews of sixty adults in Southern California who have formed families across the black/white color line. In a societal context where normative family formation remains mono-racial, many adults in multiracial families manage their social performances to mitigate the stigma associated with their unusual family pattern or to challenge social expectations associated with race, class, and gender. Their stories reveal how they deploy strategic exaggerations of gender and stereotypes of social class in their day to day lives. These deployments operate to manage social interactions when confronting commonsense expectations about what it means to be a man or woman who trespasses the color line in family formation.
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