Abstract:
The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hierarchies.

Abstract:
Entanglement is a digraph complexity measure that origins in fixed-point theory. Its purpose is to count the nested depth of cycles in digraphs. In this paper we prove that the class of undirected graphs of entanglement at most $k$, for arbitrary fixed $k \in \mathbb{N}$, is closed under taking minors. Our proof relies on the game theoretic characterization of entanglement in terms of Robber and Cops games.

Abstract:
Entanglement is a complexity measure of digraphs that origins in fixed-point logics. Its combinatorial purpose is to measure the nested depth of cycles in digraphs. We address the problem of characterizing the structure of graphs of entanglement at most $k$. Only partial results are known so far: digraphs for $k=1$, and undirected graphs for $k=2$. In this paper we investigate the structure of undirected graphs for $k=3$. Our main tool is the so-called \emph{Tutte's decomposition} of 2-connected graphs into cycles and 3-connected components into a tree-like fashion. We shall give necessary conditions on Tutte's tree to be a tree decomposition of a 2-connected graph of entanglement 3.

Abstract:
The interleaving semantics is not compatible with both action refinement and durational actions. Since many true concurrency semantics are congruent w.r.t. action refinement, notably the causality and the maximality ones, this has challenged us to study the dense time behavior - where the actions are of arbitrary fixed duration - within the causality semantics of Da Costa. We extend the causal transition systems with the clocks and the timed constraints, and thus we obtain an over class of timed automata where the actions need not to be atomic. We define a real time extension of the formal description technique CSP, called duration-CSP, by attributing the duration to actions. We give the operational timed causal semantics of duration-CSP as well as its denotational semantics over the class of timed causal transition systems. Afterwards, we prove that the two semantics are equivalent. Finally we extend the duration-CSP language with a refinement operator $\rho$ - that allows to replace an action with a process - and prove that it preserves the timed causal bisimulation.

Abstract:
We define a lazy pattern-matching mechanism modulo associativity and commutativity. The solutions of a pattern-matching problem are stored in a lazy list composed of a first substitution at the head and a non-evaluated object that encodes the remaining computations. We integrate the lazy AC-matching in a strategy language: rewriting rule and strategy application produce a lazy list of terms.

Abstract:
Parity games are combinatorial representations of closed Boolean mu-terms. By adding to them draw positions, they have been organized by Arnold and one of the authors into a mu-calculus. As done by Berwanger et al. for the propositional modal mu-calculus, it is possible to classify parity games into levels of a hierarchy according to the number of fixed-point variables. We ask whether this hierarchy collapses w.r.t. the standard interpretation of the games mu-calculus into the class of all complete lattices. We answer this question negatively by providing, for each n >= 1, a parity game Gn with these properties: it unravels to a mu-term built up with n fixed-point variables, it is semantically equivalent to no game with strictly less than n-2 fixed-point variables.

Abstract:
Entanglement is a complexity measure of directed graphs that origins in fixed point theory. This measure has shown its use in designing efficient algorithms to verify logical properties of transition systems. We are interested in the problem of deciding whether a graph has entanglement at most k. As this measure is defined by means of games, game theoretic ideas naturally lead to design polynomial algorithms that, for fixed k, decide the problem. Known characterizations of directed graphs of entanglement at most 1 lead, for k = 1, to design even faster algorithms. In this paper we present an explicit characterization of undirected graphs of entanglement at most 2. With such a characterization at hand, we devise a linear time algorithm to decide whether an undirected graph has this property.

Abstract:
The context of this work is the design of a software, called MEMSALab, dedicated to the automatic derivation of multiscale models of arrays of micro- and nanosystems. In this domain a model is a partial differential equation. Multiscale methods approximate it by another partial differential equation which can be numerically simulated in a reasonable time. The challenge consists in taking into account a wide range of geometries combining thin and periodic structures with the possibility of multiple nested scales. In this paper we present a transformation language that will make the development of MEMSALab more feasible. It is proposed as a Maple package for rule-based programming, rewriting strategies and their combination with standard Maple code. We illustrate the practical interest of this language by using it to encode two examples of multiscale derivations, namely the two-scale limit of the derivative operator and the two-scale model of the stationary heat equation.

Abstract:
We introduce a framework for computer-aided derivation of multi-scale models. It relies on a combination of an asymptotic method used in the field of partial differential equations with term rewriting techniques coming from computer science. In our approach, a multi-scale model derivation is characterized by the features taken into account in the asymptotic analysis. Its formulation consists in a derivation of a reference model associated to an elementary nominal model, and in a set of transformations to apply to this proof until it takes into account the wanted features. In addition to the reference model proof, the framework includes first order rewriting principles designed for asymptotic model derivations, and second order rewriting principles dedicated to transformations of model derivations. We apply the method to generate a family of homogenized models for second order elliptic equations with periodic coefficients that could be posed in multi-dimensional domains, with possibly multi-domains and/or thin domains.

Abstract:
To model Web services handling data from an infinite domain, or with multiple sessions, we introduce fresh-variable automata, a simple extension of finite-state automata in which some transitions are labeled with variables that can be refreshed in some specified states. We prove several closure properties for this class of automata and study their decision problems. We then introduce a notion of simulation that enables us to reduce the Web service composition problem to the construction of a simulation of a target service by the asynchronous product of existing services, and prove that this construction is computable.