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Clinico-Epidemiological Pattern and Treatment of Epistaxis in a Tertiary Hospital in South Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Waheed Atilade Adegbiji, Gabriel Toye Olajide, Fatai Olatoke, Clement Chukwuemeka Nwawolo
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2018.73012
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Epistaxis is a common presentation and may constitute a major challenge to the parents and the health care givers. This study aimed at determining the clinico-epidemiological pattern, presentation and etiology of epistaxis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study of all patients that presented with epistaxis via the Ear, Nose and Throat department of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study was carried out between June 2012 and July 2017. Data were obtained from patients who gave consent by using pre-tested interviewer assisted questionnaire. All the data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The prevalence of epistaxis in this study was 12.2%. The peak age group was 1-10 years with epistaxis prevalence of 36.4%. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Anterior epistaxis was more common than posterior epistaxis accounted for 80.1% and 7.4% respectively. Single episode of epistaxis was seen in 78.4% of the patients while recurrent epistaxis occurred in 21.6%. Unilateral epistaxis was 62.5%, bilateral epistaxis was 37.5% while right nasal bleeding accounted for 35.8%. The main local causes of epistaxis were trauma 29.5%, infective rhinosinusitis 18.8% and sinonasal tumours 12.5%. Severe epistaxis requiring blood transfusion was seen in 2.8% of the patients and death was recorded in 2.3%. Majority 110 (62.5%) were managed by observation alone, 20 (11.4%) by conservative therapy and 22 (12.5%) had surgical excision. Blood transfusion was given in 5. The outcome of treatment was good recovery in 79.0% while patients’ satisfaction with treatment was noted in 84.1%. Conclusion: Epistaxis is a common sinonasal presentation with effect on quality of life. In our center commonest site of nose bleeds was local mainly from traumatic, inflammatory and neoplastic aetiology.
Pattern of Paediatric Adenoid and Tonsillar Surgery in Ekiti  [PDF]
Waheed Atilade Adegbiji, Shuaib Kayode Aremu, Abdul Akeem A. Aluko, Olawale Olubi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.912070
Abstract: Background: Surgeries of adenoid, tonsils or both are common pediatric performed by otorhinolaryngologist, head, and neck surgeon worldwide. Clinical pattern and management varied in a different center. This study aimed at determining the rate, socio-demographic features, indications, barriers, types, complications and patients’ satisfaction with adenoid and tonsils surgery in low-income countries. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective study of pediatric patients who had adenotonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and tonsillectomy in the study center. This study was carried out over a period of ten years from March 2007 to February 2017. Data for this study was obtained from the medical record department, ENT clinic operation booking register and theatre operation register. All the data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. The data were then expressed by descriptive statistics table, bar charts, and pie charts. Ethical clearance was sought for and obtained from the ethical committee of the institution. Results: A total of 463 patients were booked for adenoid and tonsillar surgery out of which 214 patients had surgery done during the study period. This represented 46.2% of the participants that had surgery done. Adenotonsillectomy peaked 38.3% at preschool age group: (1 - 5) years. There were 58.9% males and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Majority 42.5% of the patients reside in the city while minority 25.7% of the patients were village dwellers. Preschool ages were the majority 40.2% while post-secondary schools ages were the minority 8.4% of the patients. The parents of the majority of the patients were 27.1% health workers and 24.8% business men, while the parent of the minority of the patients was 11.7% farmers and 16.4% industrial workers. Major indications for surgery were 52.3% obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and 21.5% recurrent tonsillitis. Less common indications for surgery in this study were 1.4% persistent fever and 1.9% cardiopulmonary complications. There were 7.0% patients admitted as day cases and 93.0% patients admitted as an in-patient. Postoperatively, 1.4% of the day cases were admitted as inpatients while 1.9% of inpatients were treated as day cases. In this study, the established high risk factors include age less than 1 year 13.6%, Down syndrome 1.4%, craniofacial abnormalities 1.9%, malnutrition 10.7%, serum electrolyte and urea imbalance 10.3%, cardiovascular disease 3.7%, respiratory disease 7.5%, anaemia 8.9%, haemoglobinopathy 3.3% and
Evaluation of the Impact of Tinnitus on Health-Related Quality of Life amid Sawmill Workforces  [PDF]
Shuaib Kayode Aremu, Waheed Atilade Adegbiji, Azeez Oyemomi Ibrahim, Abdulakeem Adebayo Aluko, Adepeju Oluwatona Dosunmu
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2019.101001
Abstract: Background: Tinnitus is the phantom aural perception of sound lacking an exterior stimulus, a sub-type of auditory hallucination and it is a common sensation among noise-exposed employees. It is a symptom, not an illness. Tinnitus can be extremely perplexing for its subjects and it may perhaps dis-turb their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) if exposed to extreme noises in many ways. Objective: This study is intended to discover the effects and pattern of tinnitus on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) amid noise-exposed saw mill workforces. Method: This study was a prospective and public-centered cross-sectional study, including 510 sawmill personnel. 510 directorial staff was used as the control. Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of all subjects was assessed with the WHO Quality of Life brief questionnaire. Self-reported tinnitus morbidity was assessed by means of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. A correlation was established amid health-related quality of life scores and tinnitus severity scores. Result: There were 510 sawmill employees enlisted into the study, out of which 490 were men and 20 were women with control of the same age and sex. The mean age was 36.85 ± 7.68 years for the sawmill workers and 35.75 ± 8.65 years for the control group (t = 1.02, P = 0.275). The mean tinnitus score for the sawmill workers was 20.80 ± 2.56. Out of the 510 sawmill workers, 52 (10.2%) had tinnitus and one of the controls had tinnitus. The mean health-related quality of life scores were 62.20 ± 8.62 and 72.56 ± 5.98 for the sawmill workers and control group respectively. There was a substantial and remarkable difference between the health-related quality of life of the sawmill workers and the control group (P < 0.05). Also, it was observed that there was a noteworthy drop in the overall physical and psychological domains of the health-related quality of life scores with an increase in work environment noise level among sawmill employees and no major alteration was observed in the social and environmental aspects of the quality of life scores with change in occupational
Geriatric Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Emergency in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti  [PDF]
Waheed Atilade Adegbiji, Shuaib Kayode Aremu, Abdul-Akeem A. Aluko
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2019.83009
Abstract: Background: Issues of geriatric otolaryngologic emergency have not been widely applied despite an increase in the geriatric population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, sociodemographic features, etiology, clinical features, complications and sources of referral of geriatric otorhinolaryngological, head and neck emergency in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. The study was carried out between October 2016 and September 2018. Data were obtained by using a pretested interviewers questionnaire. All data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The data were expressed by frequency table, percentage, bar charts, and pie charts. Results: Geriatric otorhinolaryngology, head and neck emergency accounted for 5.3%. Major prevalence age group was 43.9% in the age group (60 - 64). There were 38.6% of males with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. The main etiology of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was 29.5% trauma/road traffic accident/foreign body impaction and 25.8% tumor. Main anatomical distribution of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was 38.6% throat diseases and 31.1% ear diseases. The most frequent clinical features were the pain in 27.3%, hearing loss in 21.2%, tinnitus in 15.9%, bleeding in 14.4%, difficulty breathing in 12.9% and discharge in 11.4%. Common diagnosis in this study was 15.9% sinonasal tumor, 14.4% upper aerodigestive foreign body impaction, 10.6% earwax impaction and 19.8% otitis externa. Acute presentation (<13 weeks) occurred in 1 week in 74.2% and 2 - 13 weeks in 19.7%. Commonest time of presentation was daytime in 65.9%. Major sources of referral were 43.2% general practitioner and 31.1% casualty officers. Presentation of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was mainly ear, nose and throat clinic in 59.8% with accident and emergency in 28.8%. Commonest associated comorbid illnesses among the geriatric patients were 18.2% hypertension, 14.4% arthritis, and 9.8% diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Geriatric otorhinolaryngological emergency is a common pathology associated with comorbid illnesses. Detailed clinical assessment is mandatory for effective management outcome.
Clinico-Pathologic Study of Salivary Gland Disorders at a Sub-Urban Nigerian Tertiary Hospital: A 5 Year Retrospective Review  [PDF]
Obitade S. Obimakinde, Olabamiji A. Olajuyin, Waheed A. Adegbiji, Abidemi E. Omonisi, Christopher O. Ibidun
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2019.83012
Abstract: Background: The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. Despite the relatively common nature of salivary gland disorders, there is dearth of literature on these lesions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore embarked on this study to analyze the differential diagnosis of salivary gland lesions seen and managed at our institution. Methods: A retrospective review of salivary gland disorders that presented at our facility from January 2012 to December 2016 was done. Information on patients’ demographic details, type and location of salivary gland lesion, histologic diagnosis and treatment were retrieved and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Result: A total of 65 patients were treated for salivary gland lesions of various types during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 68 years [mean 33.8 ± 12.3]. Neoplastic lesions [n = 39, 60.0%] were the commonest followed by sialolithiasis [n = 14, 21.5%] while mucous retention/extravasation cysts accounted for 13.9% of the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma was the predominant tumor in this series [87.2%] and the commonest site was the parotid gland [58.8%]. On the contrary submandibular gland appeared to be the commonest site for sialolithiasis [57.1%]. The majority of mucous retention/extravasation cysts occurred in the sublingual gland [55.5%]. Conclusion: Neoplastic lesions remain the commonest salivary gland disorder and pleomorphic adenoma was the most prevalent. Sialolithiasis and mucous cysts are salivary gland lesions with equally wide disease spectrum.
Effects of Soya Beans Supplements on Fertility in Male Wistar Rats
Olusola Atilade Adeeyo,Emmanuel Oluwatobi Salawu,Ibidun Julian Ola,Waheed Adeoye Saka
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background. Being a cheap source of protein and oil, soya beans (SB) has being important in peoples’ food and in animal’s feeds. However, some of its components pose infertility threats. This makes the decision for its consumption hard. Aim. To determine a safe level, the maximum harmless proportion of food that could be made up by SB is examined in this study. Material and Methods. Twenty-four adult male Wister rats, randomly divided into four groups (of 6 rats each), were used. Group A was the control and were fed growers mash pellets. Group B, C, and D rats were fed derivatives of growers mash containing 8.33 %, 16.67 %, and 25.00 % SB . All treatments were for twelve weeks. Relative epididymal weight, sperm count, morphology, motility, serum testosterone level were determined. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test. Results. The results showed that unlike in rats fed with mash containing large amount of SB, fertility abnormalities were almost entirely absent in the rats fed with the least proportion of soya beans. Therefore, the potential antifertility effect of soya beans used in feeds/foods might be averted if the proportion of the soya used could be lower than 5g per 60g of feed/food.Conclusion. The potential antifertility effect of soya beans used in feeds/foods could be averted if the proportion of the used soya would always be lower than 8.33% of feed/food. Further research for the verification of this study, and for the derivation of a more precise safe level of soya beans are encouraged.
Effects of Soya Beans Supplements on Fertility in Male Wistar Rats
Olusola Atilade Adeeyo, Emmanuel Oluwatobi Salawu, Ibidun Julian Ola, Waheed Adeoye Saka, Gbadebo Emmanuel Adeleke, Olasupo Stephen Adeniyi
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0158
Abstract: Background. Being a cheap source of protein and oil, soya beans (SB) has being important in peoples' food and in animal's feeds. However, some of its components pose infertility threats. This makes the decision for its consumption hard. Aim. To determine a safe level, the maximum harmless proportion of food that could be made up by SB is examined in this study. Material and Methods. Twenty-four adult male Wister rats, randomly divided into four groups (of 6 rats each), were used. Group A was the control and were fed growers mash pellets. Group B, C, and D rats were fed derivatives of growers mash containing 8.33 %, 16.67 %, and 25.00 % SB. All treatments were for twelve weeks. Relative epididymal weight, sperm count, morphology, motility, serum testosterone level were determined. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test. Results. The results showed that unlike in rats fed with mash containing large amount of SB, fertility abnormalities were almost entirely absent in the rats fed with the least proportion of soya beans. Therefore, the potential antifertility effect of soya beans used in feeds/foods might be averted if the proportion of the soya used could be lower than 5g per 60g of feed/food. Conclusion. The potential antifertility effect of soya beans used in feeds/foods could be averted if the proportion of the used soya would always be lower than 8.33% of feed/food. Further research for the verification of this study, and for the derivation of a more precise safe level of soya beans are encouraged.
Inexpensive Pipelines Health Evaluation Techniques Based on Resonance Determination, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Testing  [PDF]
Waheed Sami Abushanab
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.54046
Abstract:
In this paper, a non-destructive, reliable, and inexpensive vibration-based technique for evaluating Carbon steel pipes structure integrity. The proposed techniques allow a quick assessment of pipes structures at final pipe manufacturing stages and/or just before installation. A finite element modelling (FEM) using ABAQUS software was developed to determine the resonance mode of healthy Carbon steel pipe and a series of experiments were conducted to verify the outcomes of the modelling work. Consequently, the effects of quantified seeded faults, i.e., a 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm diameter holes in the pipe wall on these resonance modes were determined using modelling work. A number of common used vibration analysis techniques were applied to detect and to evaluate the severity of those quantified faults. The amplitudes and frequencies of vibration signals were measured and compared. There were found to be in good agreement with the modelling work and provide important information on pipe construction condition and fault severity.
Oil Transmission Pipelines Condition Monitoring Using Wavelet Analysis and Ultrasonic Techniques  [PDF]
Waheed Sami Abushanab
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.56066
Abstract: In this paper, a reliable and sensitive diagnostic method for oil pipelines based on wavelet analysis and ultrasonic technique. This will be achieved by the use of 3-D finite element modeling software (Abaqus CAE 6.10) combined with a power full wavelet based signal processing technique will be used to collect the empirical ultrasonic data to validate the developed diagnostic method. The affect known seeded faults i.e., 1 mmhole at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% depth in pipe wall were investigated using FEM techniques. A developed acoustic transceiver (Air Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducer 235AC130) will be used to collect the empirical ultrasonic data to validate the developed diagnostic method. The amplitudes and frequency spectra of the ultrasonic signals were measured and the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with the measured data, and that to confirm that this method can provide important information on pipe defects.
Uncertainty Modeling for Oil Tankers and Operational Guidance  [PDF]
Waheed Sami Abu Shanab
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.72020
Abstract: Technology evolution has been a driving factor in the oil tanker industry. The technology breakthroughs and historical data served as the main factor of evo-lution in the industry. Nowadays the oil tankers have been modified and opti-mized according to the requirements of the cargo and the area in which they are supposed to operate. This paper reviews some technological developments in the tanker industry and driving factors behind them. The issues of environmental pollution, failure prediction, and efficient operations are also discussed in mathematical terms.
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