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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1821 matches for " Wael Osman "
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Cognitive Skill Transfer in English Reading Acquisition: Alphabetic and Logographic Languages Compared  [PDF]
Wael Shakkour
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44048
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review published studies regarding acquisition of English as a second or foreign language by students of different linguistic backgrounds, in light of the English language’s opaque alphabetic orthography. This review focuses on the contribution of first language cognitive skills (orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness) in native speakers of languages with alphabetic and logographic orthographies, to English second-language reading skills (word reading and reading comprehension), to better understand the contribution of cognitive reading skills in alphabetic and logographic languages to the acquisition of English reading skills as a second language. The author examines findings in the context of second-language learning theories, and two contradictory hypotheses in particular—the linguistic interdependence hypothesis and the script-dependent hypothesis. The author finds that no consensus can be indicated as to the contribution of most native-language skills in alphabetic vs. logographic languages to the acquisition of second-language or foreign-language English reading, or even whether or not they are language-specific (script-dependent). The exception is phonological awareness in alphabetical orthographies (but not logographic orthographies) which received a consensus among researchers supporting its transfer from the native language to English as a second or foreign language.
Association of Common Variants in TNFRSF13B, TNFSF13, and ANXA3 with Serum Levels of Non-Albumin Protein and Immunoglobulin Isotypes in Japanese
Wael Osman, Yukinori Okada, Yoichiro Kamatani, Michiaki Kubo, Koichi Matsuda, Yusuke Nakamura
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032683
Abstract: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on levels of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and non-albumin protein (NAP). We analyzed SNPs on autosomal chromosomes using data from 9,103 Japanese individuals, followed by a replication study of 1,600 additional individuals. We confirmed the previously- reported association of GCKR on chromosome 2p23.3 with serum ALB (rs1260326, Pmeta = 3.1×10?9), and additionally identified the significant genome-wide association of rs4985726 in TNFRSF13B on 17p11.2 with both TP and NAP (Pmeta = 1.2×10?14 and 7.1×10?24, respectively). For NAP, rs3803800 and rs11552708 in TNFSF13 on 17p13.1 (Pmeta = 7.2×10?15 and 7.5×10?10, respectively) as well as rs10007186 on 4q21.2 near ANXA3 (Pmeta = 1.3×10?9) also indicated significant associations. Interestingly, TNFRSF13B and TNFSF13 encode a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and its ligand, which together constitute an important receptor-ligand axis for B-cell homeostasis and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, three SNPs, rs4985726, rs3803800, and rs11552708 in TNFRSF13B and TNFSF13, were indicated to be associated with serum levels of IgG (P<2.3×10?3) and IgM (P<0.018), while rs3803800 and rs11552708 were associated with IgA (P<0.013). Rs10007186 in 4q21.2 was associated with serum levels of IgA (P = 0.036), IgM (P = 0.019), and IgE (P = 4.9×10?4). Our results should add interesting knowledge about the regulation of major serum components.
Evaluation of the Ultimate Capacity of Friction Piles  [PDF]
Wael N. Abd Elsamee
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.411100
Abstract: The precise prediction of maximum load carrying capacity of bored piles is a complex problem because the load is a function of a large number of factors. These factors include method of boring, method of concreting, quality of concrete, expertise of the construction staff, the ground conditions and the pile geometry. To ascertain the field performance and estimate load carrying capacities of piles, in-situ pile load tests are conducted. Due to practical and time constraints, it is not possible to load the pile up-to failure. In this study, field pile load test data is analyzed to estimate the ultimate load for friction piles. The analysis is based on three pile load test results. The tests are conducted at the site of The Cultural and Recreational Complex project in Port Said, Egypt. Three pile load tests are performed on bored piles of 900 mm diameter and 50 m length. Geotechnical investigations at the site are carried out to a maximum depth of 60 m. Ultimate capacities of piles are determined according to different methods including Egyptian Code of practice (2005), Tan-gent-tangent, Hansen (1963), Chin (1970), Ahmed and Pise (1997) and Decourt (1999). It was concluded that approxi- mately 8% of the ultimate load is resisted by bearing at the base of the pile, and that up to 92% of the load is resisted by friction along the shaft. Based on a comparison of pile capacity predictions using different method, recommendations are made. A new method is proposed to calculate the ultimate capacity of the pile from pile load test data. The ultimate capacity of the bored piles predicted using the proposed method appears to be reliable and compares well to different available methods.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Foundation Depth, Size and Shape on Subgrade Reaction of Cohessionless Soil  [PDF]
Wael N. Abd Elsamee
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510095

The modulus of subgrade reaction ks depends on several factors such as the size and shape of the foundation as well as the embedment depth of the foundation. The present study is an experimental analysis using plate load test to determine the effect of foundation depth, size as well as the shape on the modulus of subgrade reaction (ks) of cohesionless soils. It was carried out by using nine rigid steel plates with different sizes and shapes (circular, square and retangular). The tests were carried out on cohessionless soil with different relative densities under different applied pressures. The settlement has been measured at the surface of the plate for different depths of footings. The ultimate bearing capacity [qu] has been determined from the stress-settlement relationships. The allowable bearing capacity (qa) was determined by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity (qu) by F.S. = 3.0, after which the corresponding settlement (Sa) has been obtained. However, ks was calculated based on dividing the allowable bearing capacity (qa) by the corresponding settlement (Sa). From the present study it is concluded that the subgrade reaction ks of cohessionless soil increases with increasing foundation depth as well as foundation size. In addition, subgrade reaction ks of cohessionless soil under rectangular footing is higher than that under square and that under circular one with same equivalent area. An empirical formula is presented to calculate the subgrade reaction ks of cohessionless soil under square foundation taking into consideration foundation depth. Fair agreement has been obtained between values of ks from the empirical formula at depth of footing = 0.00 B and Biot (1937) as well as Meyerhof and Baike (1965).

New Method for Prediction Pile Capacity Executed by Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)  [PDF]
Wael N. Abd Elsamee
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.54047

A study of piles is quit complex and the estimation of carrying capacity is calculated from theoretical formula and load test results. The design resistance may be calculated using conventional static pile design theory. The pile founding depths should be predetermined before installation from a site geotechnical investigation. To ascertain the field performance and estimate load carrying capacities of piles, in-situ pile load tests should be conducted. In this study, field pile load test data is analyzed to estimate the ultimate load for end bearing piles. The investigated site is about 100 × 110 m located in Alexandria, Egypt. Geotechnical investigations at the site are carried out to a maximum depth of 45 m. Four borings have been done in field. The tests are conducted at the site for two skelton structure buildings to be constructed on raft foundation rested on piles executed by continuous flight auger. Four pile load tests are performed on 600 mmdiameters and 27 mlengths. Ultimate capacities of piles are determined according to different methods. It is concluded that the percentage of friction load carried by the shaft along the pile length is about 46% of total load while the percentage of load carried by the end bearing is 54% of total load. A new proposed method by the author is presented to calculate the ultimate capacity of pile from pile load test. The proposed method depends on the settlement of pile without taken into consideration the elastic deformation. An empirical formula is presented from the relationship between stress and settlement of pile due to friction and end bearing only after deducting the elastic deformation. However, the obtained results for the ultimate

Macro and Micromorphological Studies on Seven Species of Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae Juss.) in South West of Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Wael Taha Kasem
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69136
Abstract: Genus Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae) in south west of Saudi Arabia has been studied; seven species of H. arbainense Fresen, H. longiflorum (D.C.) Jauber & Spach, H. petrocarpum Hockst & Steud, H. strigosium Willd, H. zeylanicum Lam., H. jizanense Al-Turki and H. lasiocarpum Fisch were collected, recognized, typed and nomenclatured. The most valuable characters were those of macro and distinct micromorphological data such as stomata, hairs, pollen grains and stem anatomy. Light microscopy has been used in these studies. From the obtained results, trichomes and pollen grains data in addition to stem anatomy indicated good taxonomic tools to differentiate between species of this genus. Different traditional measurements were strikingly also helpful for the discrimination of species. H. longiflorum was characterized by distinctive data such as prominent anatomical information, P/E (1.8 μm) in addition to presence of spindle hair which in turn can be separated as a taxonomic level. Also, the results revealed a complete affinity between the two species of H. jizanense
Moral Judgment: Truth, Order and Consequence  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.65061
Abstract: Often we make snap moral judgments based on limited information. For instance upon reading a newspaper headline we very quickly decide on whether the implied outcome is good or bad. However, in situations like this we are also likely to revise our judgments when we read the main story and the conclusion of the article. One question yet to be answered is whether we adjust our moral judgments in a systematic way as we gain more details about a moral scenario. Two experiments (lab-based, online) addressed this question along with the influence of other factors on moral judgments (the origin of the moral scenario, the severity of the consequence of the scenario). Across both experiments, moral judgments were: 1) generally adjusted downwards as more information was presented; 2) more severe for headlines than the main story or the conclusion; 3) more severe for scenarios that were fabricated than real life stories; 4) more severe when the conclusion involved a severe consequence than a non-severe consequence.
Dynamic Moral Judgments and Emotions  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.68090
Abstract: We may experience strong moral outrage when we read a news headline that describes a prohibited action, but when we gain additional information by reading the main news story, do our emotional experiences change at all, and if they do in what way do they change? In a single online study with 80 participants the aim was to examine the extent to which emotional experiences (disgust, anger) and moral judgments track changes in information about a moral scenario. The evidence from the present study suggests that we systematically adjust our moral judgments and our emotional experiences as a result of exposure to further information about the morally dubious action referred to in a moral scenario. More specifically, the way in which we adjust our moral judgments and emotions appears to be based on information signalling whether a morally dubious act is permitted or prohibited.
Behavioral Economics: Where Is It Heading?  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.69109
Abstract: The addition of “behavioral” to economics has given rise to a highly successful field of research. But, is it just a fashionable new trend or is it here to stay? More to the point, how does it differ from its close relative psychology? To answer these questions, the present article considers what behavioral economics is, and where it started, with the aim of trying to forecast what the status of it will be in the future. In forecasting where behavioral economics might be heading, the argument proposed here is that the best clues can be found in psychological research. If, as has been proposed here, behavioral economics partners research trends in psychology, then the futures of both will almost certainly be moving in the same direction. Both are beginning to, and will start to rely on online tools/mobile phone applications to collect richer data revealing dynamic tends over long time horizons, and as technology continues to facilitate ways of looking at group behaviour online, then larger scale studies examining interactions amongst multiple groups of people will become the norm rather than the exception. More specifically this article speculates on the future research focus of researchers in behavioral economics and the extent to which this will overlap with psychological research on judgment and decision-making.
Nursing Students’ Experience with Information Literacy Skill  [PDF]
Hawa Osman
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2017.13016
Abstract: This study examined the searching skills and extent of usage of electronic databases by Nursing, Midwifery and Public Health Nursing students in the University of Health and Allied Science (UHAS). The focus was on forty (40) level 300 students drawn from a universe of two hundred and forty six (246) of the School of Public Health (SPH). The study used quantitative method approach and the survey instruments were questionnaire, interview and observation. The data collected were analyzed and classified into the following themes: usefulness, extent of use, determinants of use of e-databases, searching skills, and main drawbacks of learning information literacy skills (ILS). Although all the respondents strongly agreed that e-databases are indispensable for academic and professional practice, findings revealed that majority of them have low quality of searching skills and that accounts for the sparse use of the e-databases. This positive association is proven by Pearson’s chi square test (0.000). The study also established that students’ attitude, academic loads and methodology of teaching were the challenges hindering the acquisition of ILS of students. As a consequence, the study recommends that Academic librarians should intensify their education on e-databases, the development of research guides and encourages stronger collaboration with faculty members in the teaching of ILS so that student nurses would be more adept in searching for information to enhanced scholarship and professional practice.
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