Abstract:
In order to analyze the relationships between aboveground biomass and environmental factors along an altitude gradient of Bayanbulak alpine grassland on the southern slope of Tianshan Mountain, nine plots were selected, with each at 100 m interval of altitude. The results showed that Stipa purpurea and Festuca ovina communities distributed at the altitude from 2460 to 2760 m, and the aboveground biomass were 52.2-75.9 g x m(-2). Kobresia capillifolia + S. purpurea communities distributed at altitude 2860 m, and the aboveground biomass was 53.2 g x m(-2). K. capillifolia, Aichemilla tianschanica and Carex stenocarpa distributed at the altitude from 2860 to 3260 m, and the aboveground biomass was 62.1-107.4 g x m(-2). The mean relative humidity in July and August had greater effects on the aboveground biomass. Altitude had a negative correlation with the aboveground biomass of gramineous functional group, but a positive correlation with that of sedge functional group. The mean air temperature in July and August was the key factor affecting the aboveground biomass of gramineous and sedge functional groups, and the stepwise regression equations were Y = 13.467X - 97.284 and Y = 171.699 - 15.331X, respectively (X represented mean air temperature, and Y represented aboveground biomass). Altitude was negatively correlated with mean air temperature and soil pH value (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with mean relative humidity (P < 0.01) and soil available nitrogen and water content (P < 0.05).

Abstract:
Background Long term retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa's rapidly expanding programmes is said to be 60% at 2 years. Many reports from African ART programmes make little mention of patients who are transferred out to another facility, yet Malawi's national figures show a transfer out of 9%. There is no published information about what happens to patients who transfer-out, but this is important because if they transfer-in and stay alive in these other facilities then national retention figures will be better than previously reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Of all patients started on ART over a three year period in Mzuzu Central Hospital, North Region, Malawi, those who transferred out were identified from the ART register and master cards. Clinic staff attempted to trace these patients to determine whether they had transferred in to a new ART facility and their outcome status. There were 805 patients (19% of the total cohort) who transferred out, of whom 737 (92%) were traced as having transferred in to a new ART facility, with a median time of 1.3 months between transferring-out and transferring-in. Survival probability was superior and deaths were lower in the transfer-out patients compared with those who did not transfer. Conclusion/Significance In Mzuzu Central Hospital, patients who transfer-out constitute a large proportion of patients not retained on ART at their original clinic of registration. Good documentation of transfer-outs and transfer-ins are needed to keep track of national outcomes. Furthermore, the current practice of regarding transfer-outs as being double counted in national cohorts and subtracting this number from the total national registrations to get the number of new patients started on ART is correct.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study the modified diagonal cycle in the triple product of a curve over a global field defined by Gross and Schoen. Our main result is an identity between the height of this cycle and the self-intersection of the relative dualising sheaf. We have some applications to the following problems in number theory and algebraic geometry.

Abstract:
In this note, we show how the classical Hodge index theorem implies the Hodge index conjecture of Beilinson for height pairing of homologically trivial codimension two cycles over function field of characteristic 0. Such an index conjecture has been used in our paper on Gross-Schoen cycles to deduce the Bogomolov conjecture and a lower bound for Hodge class (or Faltings height) from some conjectures about metrized graphs which have just been recently proved by Zubeyir Cinkir.

Abstract:
Spin-orbit coupling plays an important role in determining the properties of solids, and is crucial for spintronics device applications. Conventional spin-orbit coupling arises microscopically from relativistic effects described by the Dirac equation, and is described as a single particle band effect. In this work, we propose a new mechanism in which spin-orbit coupling can be generated dynamically in strongly correlated, non-relativistic systems as the result of fermi surface instabilities in higher angular momentum channels. Various known forms of spin-orbit couplings can emerge in these new phases, and their magnitudes can be continuously tuned by temperature or other quantum parameters.

Abstract:
Quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) simulations involving fermions have the notorious sign problem. Some well-known exceptions of the auxiliary field QMC algorithm rely on the factorizibility of the fermion determinant. Recently, a fermionic QMC algorithm [1] has been found in which the fermion determinant may not necessarily factorizable, but can instead be expressed as a product of complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues, thus eliminating the sign problem for a much wider class of models. In this paper, we present general conditions for the applicability of this algorithm and point out that it is deeply related to the time reversal symmetry of the fermion matrix. We apply this method to various models of strongly correlated systems at all doping levels and lattice geometries, and show that many novel phases can be simulated without the sign problem.

Abstract:
The large phase shift of strongly nonlocal spatial optical soliton(SNSOS) in the (1+1)-dimensional [(1+1)D] lead glass is investigated using the perturbation method. The fundamental soliton solution of the nonlocal nonlinear Schodinger equation(NNLSE) under the second approximation in strongly nonlocal case is obtained. It is found that the phase shift rate along the propagation direction of such soliton is proportional to the degree of nonlocality, which indicates that one can realize Pi-phase-shift within one Rayleigh distance in (1+1)D lead glass. A full comprehension of the nonlocality-enhancement to the phase shift rate of SNSOS is reached via quantitative comparisons of phase shift rates in different nonlocal systems.

Abstract:
This is the second paper of a series. It extends the results of the first paper from number fields to finitely generated fields. We introduce a theory of adelic line bundles on projective varieties over finitely generated fields, prove an arithmetic Hodge index theorem for these adelic line bundles, apply the theorem to obtain a rigidity property of the sets of preperiodic points of polarizable algebraic dynamical systems over any field.

Abstract:
This is the first paper of a series. We prove an arithmetic Hodge index theorem for adelic line bundles on projective varieties over number fields. It extends the arithmetic Hodge index theorem of Faltings, Hriljac and Moriwaki on arithmetic varieties. As consequences, we obtain the uniqueness part of the non-archimedean Calabi--Yau theorem, and a rigidity property of the sets of preperiodic points of polarizable algebraic dynamical systems over number fields.

Abstract:
The Colmez conjecture, proposed by Colmez, is a conjecture expressing the Faltings height of a CM abelian variety in terms of some linear combination of logarithmic derivatives of Artin L-functions. The aim of this paper to prove an averaged version of the conjecture.