Abstract:
Aims Our objective was to investigate the effects of different light intensities on leaf morphology, photosynthetic capacity, heat dissipation and antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of Alnus formosana and A. cremastogyne from a hilly region near Lingyan Mountain in northwestern Sichuan Province in China. We also discuss photosynthetic acclimation and photoprotection strategies in seedlings of the two species Methods Three light regimes of 100%, 56.2% and 12.5% of natural light were simulated to match forest openings, forest gaps and forest canopies, respectively. After more than three months, we measured the parameters of gas exchange, including maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), fluorescent non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and light use efficiency (LUE), using a LI-6400 in seedling leaves. We also determined pigment contents per unit leaf area, lamina mass per unit area (LMA) and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase). Important findings LMA, carotenoid content (Cars), ratio of carotenoid to total chlorophyll (Car/Chl) and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in leaves increased with the increase of light intensities. Pmax, LSP, LCP and NPQ tended to increase, while the chlorophyll content (Chl) and LUE decreased. However, the Ci decreased with the increase of Pn, Gs and stomatal limitation value (Ls). We speculated that non-stomatal limitation was the main factor that inhibited Pn. Seedlings of the two alder species could acclimate to different light regimes in this study through changing of physiological and morphological traits. Under all light regimes, diurnal photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as judged by Fv/Fm, was significantly more severe in A. cremastogyne than in A. formosana. The acclimation capacity to high light regime was stronger in A. formosana than in A. cremastogyne. With the increase of light intensities, Pmax and antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly, but not NPQ in A. formosana. The opposite trends occurred in A. cremastogyne. At the same light intensity, thermal dissipation was much lower, but Pmax was much higher in A. formosana than in A. cremastogyne. These results indicated that A. formosana seedlings might adapt resistance to photoinhibition through improving the use of solar energy by higher Pmax and antioxidant enzyme system, while A. cremastogyne seedling avoided photoinhibition mainly through converting excess light energy to heat energy in the form of non-radiative dissipation through the antenna system.

Abstract:
This in virtue of the notion of likelihood ratio and the tool of moment generating function, the limit properties of the sequences of random discrete random variables are studied, and a class of strong deviation theorems which represented by inequalities between random variables and their expectation are obtained. As a result, we obtain some strong deviation theorems for Poisson distribution and binomial distribution.

Abstract:
The
classical composite rectangle (constant) rule for the computation of Cauchy
principle value integral with the singular kernel ？is discussed. We show
that the superconvergence rate of the composite midpoint rule occurs at certain
local coodinate of each subinterval and obtain the corresponding
superconvergence error estimate. Then collation methods are presented to solve
certain kind of Hilbert singular integral equation. At last, some numerical
examples are provided to validate the theoretical analysis.

This paper is based on the national strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration. At first, we make strategy analysis on the development of cold chain logistics of fresh agricultural products, using the PEST analysis model to analyze the macro environment and SWOT analysis model to distinguish strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats it faced now meticulously, then we discuss the development strategy combination under the integration of the Bei-jing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Secondly, we analyze the cold chain logistics demand of fresh agricultural products in view of the integration of the Bei-jing-Tianjin-Hebei region under the fresh agricultural products categories. The exponential smoothing is used to forecast first, then the secondary exponential smoothing model is set up to make the fitting figure with the actual and predicted value. In addition, we forecast the output in the next few years and analyze the results. Finally, combining with the development strategy combination and prediction analysis, we put forward the development pattern and give a prospect of fresh agricultural products cold chain logistics.

Abstract:
In the title compound, [Co(C13H10N4O8)(C5H5N)(H2O)]·C10H8N2, the asymmetric unit comprises half a CoII complex located on a mirror plane and half a cocrystallized molecule of 4,4′-bipyridine located on an inversion center. The CoII ion is six coordinate, with distorted octahedral geometry, ligated by two N atoms and two O atoms from a 2,2′-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(5-carboxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate) dianion, one N atom from a pyridine molecule and one coordinating water molecule. The Co—O bond lengths range from 2.076 (2) to 2.1441 (15) , while the Co—N bond lengths are 2.138 (3) and 2.1515 (17) . A two-dimensional network of N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds stabilizes the crystal packing. There are π–π interactions between the bipyridine and imidazole rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7694 (4) ]. The propane-1,3-diyl group is disordered over two conformations, with refined occupancies of 0.755 (8) and 0.245 (8).

Abstract:
In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C17H15N2S)], the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings are almost parallel and essentially eclipsed, with a dihedral angle between the Cp ring planes of 0.807 (11)°. The Fe atom is slightly closer to the substituted cyclopentadienyl ring, with an Fe–centroid distance of 1.6510 (8) , compared with 1.6597 (8) for the unsubstituted ring. The bridging unit between the substituted Cp ring and the naphthyl ring system is planar within 0.0174 and makes dihedral angles of 59.032 (10) and 66.02 (2)°, respectively, with these two rings. The angle between the substituted Cp ring and the naphthyl ring system is 72.094 (18)°. The H atoms of the NH groups of the thiourea moiety are positioned anti with respect to each other. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds.

Abstract:
The issue of ethnic tourism presently has officially entered the vision as well as the linguistic environment of the authoritative tourism research institutes in China. Regardless of plentiful highlighted unsatisfactory issues in ethnic tourism development, overall however appropriately developed and effectively controlled ethnic tourism will be beneficial to the protection of traditional cultures. The paper believes ethnic tourism should be recognized and it is neither considerate nor objective to totally repudiate ethnic tourism positive effects in ethnic regions simply because of some issues occurred. This paper proposes author’s own views countering some important issues in ethnic tourism studies. Key word: ethnic tourism; authenticity; positive effect

Abstract:
The Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation governs the probability density function (p.d.f.) of the dynamic response of a particular class of linear or nonlinear system to random excitation. An interval wavelet numerical method (IWNM) for nonlinear random systems is proposed using interval Shannon-Gabor wavelet interpolation operator. An FPK equation for nonlinear oscillators and a time fractional Fokker-Planck equation are taken as examples to illustrate its effectiveness and efficiency. Compared with the common wavelet collocation methods, IWNM can decrease the boundary effect greatly. Compared with the finite difference method for the time fractional Fokker-Planck equation, IWNM can improve the calculation precision evidently. 1. Introduction The Fokker-Planck equation describes the time evolution of the probability density function of the velocity of a particle, and can be generalized to other observables as well. It is named after Adriaan Fokker and Max Planck and is also known as the Kolmogorov forward equation (diffusion), named after Andrey Kolmogorov, who first introduced it in a 1931 paper. When applied to particle position distributions, it is better known as the Smoluchowski equation. The case with zero diffusion is known in statistical mechanics as Liouville equation. In order to describe subdiffusive behavior of a particle under the combined influence of external nonlinear force field and a Boltzmann thermal heat bath, Metzler et al. introduced a fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) which was shown to obey generalized Einstein relations, and its stationary solution is the Boltzmann distribution [1]. Many methods for calculating nonlinear random response have been developed by numerous scholars over a long period of time. One type of these methods is the diffuseness process theory method, and the primarily one is Fokker-Planck equation method. In practice, the most difficult problem of using Fokker-Planck equation method is how to solve the equation. For general nonlinear system, it is very difficult to obtain the exact solution. Various numerical methods have been used to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, such as the weighted residual method [2], the finite element method [3], and the path integral method [4] and so on. The Galerkin method for the numerical solution of the stationary Fokker-Planck equation developed by Bhandari and Sherrer is based on taking multiple Hermite polynomial as joint probability density, but the rate of convergence of this method is slow for strong nonlinear system. Based on Galerkin method, a finite