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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 501 matches for " WA Olowu "
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Klebsiella-induced purpura fulminans in a Nigerian child: Case report and a review of Literature
WA Olowu
West African Journal of Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: Purpura fulminans (PPF) is a very sever but rare acute thrombohaemorrhagic illness of infants and young children. It occurs mainly, in patients with either congenital or acquired deficiencies of proteins C and S and antithrombin III. Features of PPF include disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, symmetrical necrotic pupura and / or ecchymoses and symmetrical peripheral gangrene; digital and / or limb(s) amputations and end-organ failure(s) may also occur. The case of a 3.5year old Nigerian girl, who developed PPF following Klebsiella-rhinoscleromatis septicaemia is reported to illustrate the seriousness of the disease and the need for early diagnosis and management.
Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in Childhood Oliguric/Anuric Acute Kidney Injury
WA Olowu, O Adefehinti
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children treated with (N=9) and without (N=8) aminophylline. Studied outcome indices comprised urine flow rate (UFR), duration of oliguria/anuria, progression through AKI stages, number of patients requiring dialysis and mortality. Results: Mean ages for the control and aminophylline arms were 4.6±2.7 and 4.9±2.1 years (P=0.7), respectively. All patients progressed to stage-3 AKI. Baseline median UFRs in the aminophylline and control arms were similar (0.13 Vs 0.04 ml/kg/hour respectively, P=0.5). The median UFR was significantly higher on day-5 (0.8 Vs 0.1; P=0.03), day-6 (1.0 Vs 0.2; P=0.02), and day-7 (1.2 Vs 0.2; P=0.03) in the aminophylline than the control arm, respectively. Short duration of oliguria/anuria (≤ 6 days) was more frequently observed in aminophylline- treated patients compared to controls (77.8% Vs 25.0%; odds ratio 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.89; P=0.04). Only the aminophylline group maintained steady serum creatinine levels. Four out of five patients in the control group were dialyzed compared to only one out of eight patients in the aminophylline group (odds ratio 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.71; P=0.03). Mortality rates were similar in aminophylline- treated and control patients (33%Vs 25%; hazard ratio 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-5.5; P=0.8). Conclusion: Aminophylline therapy was beneficial for patients with AKI in terms of improved UFR and reduced need for dialysis, but failed to impact positively on survival.
Nosocomial significant bacteriuria: prevalence and pattern of bacterial pathogens among children hospitalised for non-infective urinary tract disorders
WA Olowu, TG Oyetunji
West African Journal of Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of nosocomial significant bacteriuria (NSB) and pattern of bacterial pathogens among children hospitalised for non–infective urinary rtract disorders (NUTDs) namely, acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure and congenital urinary tract anormalies in our nephrology unit. Serial midstream or suprapubic puncture urine specimens were collected into sterile plastic universal bottles from the patients for microscopy, culture and sensitivity, using the standard laboratory methods. Seventeen of the 96 patients admitted for NUTDs were excluded from the study based on the set exclusion criteria; only 19 out of the 79 patients studied were found to have NSB giving a prevalence rate of 24.05%. The isolated pathogens included Klebsiella spp. (47.37%). Staphylococcus aureus (31.58%). Escherichia coli (10.53%), Pseudomonas spp. (5.26%) and Citobacter spp. (5.26%). While 78.95% and 69.23% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and cefuroxime respectively, 57.9% were sensitive to ceftazidime and nitrofurantoin. Less than 50% of the isolates were sensitive to each of the other antibiotics tested. Five of the patients died giving a case fatality rate of 26.3%. In this study, NSB is evidently a very common health problem and a significant risk factor for mortality in patients with NUTDs. Weekly urine culture is recommended in any hospitalised child with NUTD in order to diagnose and manage NSB early before clinical deterioration sets in.
Pericarditis as initial clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus in a girl
JBE Elusiyan, WA Olowu
South African Journal of Child Health , 2011,
Abstract: The most common diagnostic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) include mucocutaneous lesions, nephritis, arthritis and haematological disorder. Serositis in the form of pericarditis is an uncommon first-line clinical manifestation. We report on an 11-year-old Nigerian girl who presented recurrently with pericarditis as the initial clinical manifestation of SLE. Other diagnostic clinical features, namely malar rash and polyarthritis, evolved sequentially over time. Diagnostic laboratory features were lymphopenic leukopenia, a positive lupus erythematosus cell preparation and positive lupus anticoagulant tests. She responded well to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy. Unexplained pericarditis in any child should warrant immediate screening for SLE.
The Constitutionalization of Local Government in Developing Countries—Analysis of African Experiences in Global Perspective  [PDF]
Dele Olowu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32006
Abstract: The constitutionalization of local government is a distinctive contribution of developing countries to governance reform and the policy and practice of modern public administration. Local governments in most western and industrialized societies are creatures of the national government and are essentially statutory bodies-created, modified and suspended or eliminated at will by the state statutes. In fact, in the Anglo Saxon tradition, these institutions are referred to as local authorities and never local government. In seeking to enhance the capacity of sub-national entities against overbearing central authorities countries as disparate as Brazil, India, Philippines, Bolivia, Colombia, South Korea to mention only a few constitutionalized their local governments. This boosted the status and role of these entities in terms of the policy processes for local level development, services delivery and citizen participation. There have also been a number of challenges—local elite capture or corruption, capacity, coordination, equity and stability issues. However, a consistent overall consequence when properly implemented has been a positive impact on service delivery and the enhancement of the interface between local government and local governance as well as the strengthening of intergovernmental relations. A number of African countries have followed this global good governance practice but the results have been mixed. This paper reviews the experiences of Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Ghana that have all constitutionalized local governments and seek to explain the differential outcomes in each country context. This is an important issue as a number of other countries that have recently initiated fundamental governance changes have incorporated local government reform as a part of the constitutional reform process. These countries include Kenya while a number of other countries in eastern, southern and especially northern parts of the continent are likely to follow this example as they engage the constitutional reform process.
From defiance to engagement: An evaluation of Shell’s approach to conflict resolution in the Niger Delta
D Olowu
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: In the course of the lengthy era of military rule in Nigeria, the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd (Shell) enjoyed robust protection from the State, a scenario that largely left the unrelenting demands of the Niger Delta peoples unheeded. Over the last decade, however, Shell has gradually become responsive to the inevitable need of getting involved in State and non-State initiatives for finding sustainable peace in the Niger Delta region. At formal and informal levels, these initiatives are becoming evident although challenges remain. This essay proceeds from the premise that the Niger Delta conflict is not interminable. Extrapolating from the various efforts made by Shell towards resolving its conflicts with the peoples of the Niger Delta, this essay accentuates some of the missing links between top-down efforts and bottom-up initiatives in building sustainable peace in the region. Drawing from learned experiences of Shell’s successes and failures as well as of Nigeria’s power relations and institutional architecture, this essay contends that while compensatory gestures could play a major role in the resolution of conflicts, that approach alone cannot guarantee conflict resolution and reconciliation in the Niger Delta. The overarching outcome of this evaluation is an attempt at identifying the entry points of concerted conflict resolution strategies, with practical focus on the short-, medium- and long-term attainment of peace.
Mainstreaming women, equating men: Charting an inclusionary approach to transformative development in the African decade for women
D Olowu
Law, Democracy & Development , 2011,
Abstract: A great deal of legal and policy foundation has been laid for promoting gender mainstreaming in development and, since the 1995 International Women’s Conference in Beijing, there have been serious attempts to implement this strategy at various levels. Plausible as the concept may be, this article contends that the status of women can only be advanced through gender mainstreaming strategies that are adapted to each specific culture, place and political context. Following the African Union’s declaration of 2010-2020 as the African Decade for Women, some critical questions engage the dominant ideas of gender equality and mainstreaming in the continent’s ongoing development initiatives. Should men be integrated into development programming and policies relating to women? How can male integration be made most beneficial to the goal of transformative development in Africa? Highlighting relevant normative and institutional interventions, the article demonstrates how an inclusionary approach to gender mainstreaming for development in Africa resonates in such areas as education, sexual and reproductive health, fatherhood and families, work and economy, conflict resolution and domestic violence.
Children’s rights, international human rights and the promise of Islamic legal theory
D Olowu
Law, Democracy & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Dejo Olowu looks at religion and its socio-legal implications. He observes that there has been a noticeable growth in the number of writers exploring possible linkages between Islamic legal theory and an international human rights ethos. The article focuses on dimensions of Islamic legal theory pertaining to the rights of children and, more particularly, the potential of this theory to reinforce the understanding of children’s rights within the context of international human rights. While dealing with issues broadly, it evaluates Islamic legal understanding of the rights of the unborn child in some detail, arguing that the Sharia includes not only law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child. Moreover, Islam provides enforceable sanctions as well as religious and social measures to promote the welfare of the child. Islamic law, it is concluded, contains extensive provisions that can reinforce global advocacy for the promotion of the rights and welfare of children.
The Hyogo Framework for Action and its implications for disaster management and reduction in Africa
Dejo Olowu
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.22
Abstract: At the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Hyogo, Japan, in January 2005, the international community adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from disasters. The resultant Hyogo Framework for Action is the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction with the goal of substantially reducing disaster losses in human lives and socio-economic assets. What is the signi!cance of the HFA for the adoption of disaster prevention, management and risk reduction frameworks in African States? Since 2005, what has been the attitude of African States to the promise of the HFA? In terms of policy and planning, how should African States engage the HFA towards securing human lives and properties against natural and human-induced disasters? With the myriad challenges of mass poverty and underdevelopment across Africa, what implications does the HFA hold for disaster risk reduction and management in African States? This article attempts to address this plethora of questions, drawing on lessons learned in Africa and beyond. The article examines the background of the HFA and its progress in shaping the global policy agenda towards disaster management and reduction. While the article acknowledges some of the inherent weaknesses in the promise of the HFA, it nonetheless accentuates its inimitable implications for broad legal and policy strategies towards ameliorating the usual horrific aftermath of disasters in Africa.
Acute Childhood Cardiorenal Syndrome and Impact of Cardiovascular Morbidity on Survival
Wasiu A. Olowu
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/412495
Abstract: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) clinical types, prevalence, aetiology, and acute cardiovascular morbidity impact on the outcome of acute kidney function perturbation were determined. Forty-seven of 101 (46.53%) patients with perturbed kidney function had CRS. Types 3 and 5 CRS were found in 10 and 37 patients, respectively. Type 3 CRS was due to acute glomerulonephritis (AGN; ), captopril ( ), frusemide ( ), and hypovolaemia ( ). Malaria-associated haemoglobinuria ( ), septicaemia ( ), lupus nephritis ( ), tumour lysis syndrome ( ), and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ( ) caused Type 5 CRS. The cumulative mortality in hypertensive CRS was similar to nonhypertensive CRS (51.4%?versus?40.9%; ). Mortality in CRS and non-CRS was similar (45.7%?versus?24.5%; ). Type 5 survived better than type 3 CRS (66.7% versus 12.5%; ). Risk factors for mortality were Type 3 CRS ( ), AGN-associated CRS ( ), dialysis requiring CRS ( ), and heart failure due to causes other than anaemia ( ). All-cause-mortality was 34.2%. Preventive measures aimed at the preventable CRS aetiologies might be critical to reducing its prevalence. 1. Introduction The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other [1, 2]; it is a recognized morbidity and mortality multiplier in critically ill children [3]. While heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome in which heart disease reduces cardiac output, increases venous pressures, and is accompanied by molecular abnormalities that cause progressive deterioration of the failing heart and premature myocardial cell death [4], acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt clinical and/or laboratory manifestation of kidney dysfunction usually within 48 hours of bilateral kidney insult of any kind. Failure of both organs commonly coexists in critically ill children [5–7]. Congestive HF is a highly prevalent AKI comorbidity and a major indication for acute dialysis in children [5]. Recently, the 7th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) workgroup classified CRS into five distinct clinical types, [1, 2] namely: acute CRS (Type 1)—acute worsening of heart function leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction; chronic CRS (Type 2)—chronic abnormalities in heart function leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction; acute renocardiac syndrome (Type 3)—acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction; chronic renocardiac syndrome (Type 4)—chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease, and/or dysfunction, and
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