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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87317 matches for " W. W. Craig "
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What Do the United States and India Have in Common (Besides Indians): Enough for a Strategic Alliance?
Kern W. Craig
Asian Social Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v9n2p70
Abstract: The United States and India have much in common (besides Indians), enough in fact to constitute a comprehensive alliance. Both countries are former British colonies. Both use the English language: unofficially but more in the US; and, officially but less in India. Both are complimentarily large, the US in terms of area and India in terms of population. The people of India are however younger and poorer. Both countries have long coastlines and together they are adjacent the major oceans of the world: Pacific, Artic, and Atlantic including the Gulf of Mexico; and, Indian including the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The United States of America and the Republic of India have now converged as welfare states. The US was once more capitalistic whereas India was once more socialistic. Both countries use Affirmative Action: for minorities and women in the US; and, for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in India. Both governments are secular but the US is predominately Christian whereas India is predominately Hindu. Both countries face the threat of Islamic terrorism particularly the US vis-à-vis Afghanistan and India vis-à-vis Pakistan. And both the United States and India must contend with the new super-state, China.
The effects of obesity on venous thromboembolism: A review  [PDF]
Genyan Yang, Christine De Staercke, W. Craig Hooper
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24069
Abstract: Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.
Management of progressive type 2 diabetes: role of insulin therapy
Chemitiganti Ramachandra,Spellman Craig W
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1750-4732-3-5
Abstract: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving tight glycemic control and improving clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. While insulin therapy is required from the onset of diagnosis in type 1 disease, its role in type 2 diabetes requires consideration as to when to initiate and advance therapy. In this article, we review a case study that unfolds over 5 years and discuss the therapeutic decision points, initiation and advancement of insulin regimens, and analyze new data regarding the advantages and disadvantages of tight management of glucose levels.
The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in an Annihilating Dark Matter Model
Matthew W. Craig,Marc Davis
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S1384-1076(01)00072-0
Abstract: The inability of standard non-interacting cold dark matter (CDM) to account for the small scale structure of individual galaxies has led to the suggestion that the dark matter may undergo elastic and/or inelastic scattering. We simulate the evolution of an isolated dark matter halo which undergoes both scattering and annihilation. Annihilations produce a core that grows with time due to adiabatic expansion of the core as the relativistic annihilation products flow out of the core, lessening the binding energy. An effective annihilation cross section per unit mass equal to $>.03 cm^2 g^{-1} (100 km s^{-1}/v$) with a scattering cross section per unit mass of .6 cm g$^{-1}$ produces a 3 kpc core in a 10$^{10}$ M$_{\sun}$ halo that persists for 100 dynamical times. The same cross section leads to a core of only 120 pc in a rich cluster. In addition to creating to cores, annihilation should erase structure on scales below $\sim 3\times10^8$ M$_{\sun}$. Annihilating dark matter provides a mechanism for solving some of the problems of non-interacting CDM, at the expense of introducing a contrived particle physics model.
The relationship between FV Leiden and pulmonary embolism
W Craig Hooper, Christine De Staercke
Respiratory Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/rr180
Abstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE), a potential lethal complication of venous thromboembolism (VTE), is a leading cause of in-hospital death and the prevalence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism has been estimated to be approximately 630,000 cases per year in the United States [1]. It has also been estimated that PE may be directly responsible for up to 100,000 deaths and a contributing cause in another 100,000 [1]. Despite these estimates, it has been commonly agreed that the true magnitude of PE is unknown. The pathogenesis of VTE/PE is multifactorial and frequently reflects the interplay between environmental, clinical and genetic factors. Although it has been long recognized that deficiencies in the anticoagulation proteins protein C, protein S and antithrombin III were often the consequence of underlying genetic defects, there was little interest in defining the genetics of VTE/PE. This view changed, however, when FV Leiden was described and subsequently shown to be associated with 18–20% of all idiopathic VTE cases [2,3].FV Leiden is a consequence of a single G-to-A transition at nucleotide 1691 in the Factor V gene that results in the amino acid substitution of an arginine by glutamine [4,5]. This single nucleotide substitution is the only known mutation responsible for the FV Leiden genotype and a rapid molecular diagnosis can thus be easily made. A phenotypic diagnosis, which is commonly referred to as resistance to activated protein C, can also be made using findings from the clinical hematology laboratory [6]. The phenotypic diagnosis can be directly correlated with FV Leiden in approximately 90–95% of cases [7]. Since the initial description of FV Leiden, several studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of this mutation differs among the populations of the world, ranging from 5–12% of individuals of northern European descent to approximately 1% in those of African descent [7,8,9]. For example, in a case–control study of African-Americans with VTE, a FV Leiden p
The relationship between FV Leiden and pulmonary embolism
Hooper W Craig,De Staercke Christine
Respiratory Research , 2002,
Abstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the leading causes of in-patient hospital deaths. As a consequence, the identification of hemostatic variables that could identify those at risk would be important in reducing mortality. It has previously been thought that deep vein thrombosis and PE are a single disease entity and would, therefore, have the same risk factors. This view is changing, however, with the realization that the prevalence of FV Leiden, a recognized genetic risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, may be a 'milder' genetic risk factor for PE. These observations suggest that PE is not only associated with a different set of risk factors, but may be reflective of a different clot structure.
Paraneoplastic Autoimmunity Associated with Testicular Myeloid Sarcoma and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
Jeffrey W. Craig,Richard J. Lin
Case Reports in Hematology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/656543
Abstract: Myeloid sarcomas are rare extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature myeloid cells. The clinical presentations of these malignant neoplasms are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to localized mass effect. Here, we report an unusual case of myeloid sarcoma of the testis found in association with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia where the presenting symptoms were autoimmune pericarditis and migratory arthralgias and myalgias that preceded testicular enlargement by nearly three months. Treatment with both radical orchiectomy and leukemia-directed chemotherapy led to immediate reductions in symptom severity, suggesting that these early symptoms were paraneoplastic in origin. Review of the literature identified the association between hematological malignancies, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and paraneoplastic autoimmune phenomena with features similar to polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, rheumatologic symptoms related to these disease entities may be easily dismissed as vague or unrelated complaints or treated as purely rheumatologic conditions, thus delaying the formal diagnoses. Clinicians must recognize the common association between possible paraneoplastic rheumatologic symptoms and hematologic malignancies such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. 1. Introduction Myeloid sarcomas are tumor masses that consist of myeloid blasts or immature myeloid cells that occur at extramedullary sites throughout the body [1]. While the most commonly affected sites are the skin, lymph nodes, bone, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal tract, these neoplasms may be found at any location and are often accompanied by bone marrow involvement of an underlying hematologic malignancy [2]. Myeloid sarcomas are not associated with a classical presentation but are rather associated with an assortment of clinical findings dependent on tumor size, tumor location, and the direct consequences of underlying hematologic disorders (e.g., infection, bleeding, and organomegaly) [3]. Myeloid sarcomas occur less frequently than many other solid tumors, and the histomorphologic diagnosis is often difficult or delayed in the absence of a previously diagnosed blood-born malignancy [4]. Due to histomorphological similarity to non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, myeloid sarcomas are often initially confused with aggressive large B-cell lymphomas [5]. Obtaining the correct diagnosis is critical, however, as the chemotherapeutic regimens used for treating malignant lymphoproliferative disorders differ substantially from those used for treating acute
An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Sylvester N. Onyeneho,Craig W. Hedberg
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10083296
Abstract: One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens ( r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge ( r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge ( r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.
Thermodynamic phase-field model for microstructure with multiple components and phases: the possibility of metastable phases
Daniel A. Cogswell,W. Craig Carter
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061602
Abstract: A diffuse-interface model for microstructure with an arbitrary number of components and phases was developed from basic thermodynamic and kinetic principles and formalized within a variational framework. The model includes a composition gradient energy to capture solute trapping, and is therefore suited for studying phenomena where the width of the interface plays an important role. Derivation of the inhomogeneous free energy functional from a Taylor expansion of homogeneous free energy reveals how the interfacial properties of each component and phase may be specified under a mass constraint. A diffusion potential for components was defined away from the dilute solution limit, and a multi-obstacle barrier function was used to constrain phase fractions. The model was used to simulate solidification via nucleation, premelting at phase boundaries and triple junctions, the intrinsic instability of small particles, and solutal melting resulting from differing diffusivities in solid and liquid. The shape of metastable free energy surfaces is found to play an important role in microstructure evolution and may explain why some systems premelt at phase boundaries and phase triple junctions while others do not.
Nonperturbative corrections to B -> X_s l^+ l^- with phase space restrictions
Christian W. Bauer,Craig N. Burrell
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01259-9
Abstract: We study nonperturbative corrections up to O(1/m_b^3) in the inclusive rare B decay B -> X_s l^+ l^- by performing an operator product expansion. The values of the matrix elements entering at this order are unknown and introduce uncertainties into physical quantities. Imposing a phase space cut to eliminate the $c \bar{c}$ resonances we find that the O(1/m_b^3) corrections introduce an O(10%) uncertainty in the measured rate. We also find that the contributions arising at O(1/m_b^3) are comparable to the ones arising at O(1/m_b^2) over the entire region of phase space.
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