Abstract:
Cross sections were measured for the near-threshold electrodisintegration of ^3He at momentum transfer values of q=2.4, 4.4, and 4.7 fm^{-1}. From these and prior measurements the transverse and longitudinal response functions R_T and R_L were deduced. Comparisons are made against previously published and new non-relativistic A=3 calculations using the best available NN potentials. In general, for q<2 fm^{-1} these calculations accurately predict the threshold electrodisintegration of ^3He. Agreement at increasing q demands consideration of two-body terms, but discrepancies still appear at the highest momentum transfers probed, perhaps due to the neglect of relativistic dynamics, or to the underestimation of high-momentum wave-function components.

Abstract:
The coincidence cross-section and the interference structure function, R_LT, were measured for the 12C(e,e'p) 11B reaction at quasielastic kinematics and central momentum transfer of q=400 MeV/c. The measurement was at an opening angle of theta_pq=11 degrees, covering a range in missing energy of E_m = 0 to 65 MeV. The R_LT structure function is found to be consistent with zero for E_m > 50 MeV, confirming an earlier study which indicated that R_L vanishes in this region. The integrated strengths of the p- and s-shell are compared with a Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The s-shell strength and shape are compared with a Hartree Fock-Random Phase Approximation calculation. The DWIA calculation overestimates the cross sections for p- and s-shell proton knockout as expected, but surprisingly agrees with the extracted R_LT value for both shells. The HF-RPA calculation describes the data more consistently, which may be due to the inclusion of 2-body currents in this calculation.

Abstract:
The mean square polarizability radii of the proton have been measured for the first time in a virtual Compton scattering experiment performed at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility. Response functions and polarizabilities obtained from a dispersion analysis of the data at Q2=0.06 GeV2/c2 are in agreement with O(p3) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The data support the dominance of mesonic effects in the polarizabilities, and the increase of beta with increasing Q2 is evidence for the cancellation of long-range diamagnetism by short-range paramagnetism from the pion cloud.

Abstract:
The roles played by mesons in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon are explored using as a basis a model containing vector mesons with coupling to the continuum together with the asymptotic $Q^2$ behavior of perturbative QCD. Specifically, the vector dominance model (GKex) developed by Lomon is employed, as it is known to be very successful in representing the existing high-quality data published to date. An analysis is made of the experimental uncertainties present when the differences between the GKex model and the data are expanded in orthonormal basis functions. A main motivation for the present study is to provide insight into how the various ingredients in this model yield the measured behavior, including discussions of when dipole form factors are to be expected or not, of which mesons are the major contributors, for instance, at low-$Q^2$ or large distances, and of what effects are predicted from coupling to the continuum. Such insights are first discussed in momentum space, followed by an analysis of how different and potentially useful information emerges when both the experimental and theoretical electric form factors are Fourier transformed to coordinate space. While these Fourier transforms should not be interpreted as "charge distributions", nevertheless the roles played by the various mesons, especially which are dominant at large or small distance scales, can be explored via such experiment--theory comparisons.

Abstract:
We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

Abstract:
High-precision H(e,e'p)pi0 measurements at Q2=0.126 (GeV/c)2 are reported, which allow the determination of quadrupole amplitudes in the gamma* N->Delta transition; they simultaneously test the reliability of electroproduction models. The derived quadrupole-to-dipole amplitude ratios, Rsm=(-6.5 +- 0.2{stat+sys} +- 2.5{mod}) % and Rem=(-2.1 +- 0.2{stat+sys} +- 2.0{mod}) %, are dominated by model error. Previous Rsm and Rem results should be reconsidered after the model uncertainties associated with the method of their extraction are taken into account.

Abstract:
The first measurements of the induced proton polarization, P_n, for the 12C (e,e'\vec{p}) reaction are reported. The experiment was performed at quasifree kinematics for energy and momentum transfer (\omega,q) \approx (294 MeV, 756 MeV/c) and sampled a recoil momentum range of 0-250 MeV/c. The induced polarization arises from final-state interactions and for these kinematics is dominated by the real part of the spin-orbit optical potential. The distorted-wave impulse approximation provides good agreement with data for the 1p_{3/2} shell. The data for the continuum suggest that both the 1s_{1/2} shell and underlying l > 1 configurations contribute.

Abstract:
Recoil proton polarization observables were measured for both the p($\vec {\rm e}$,e$^\prime\vec{\rm p}\,$) and d($\vec {\rm e}$,e$^\prime\vec{\rm p}\,)$n reactions at two values of Q$^2$ using a newly commissioned proton Focal Plane Polarimeter at the M.I.T.-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. The hydrogen and deuterium spin-dependent observables $D_{\ell\ell}$ and $D_{{\ell}t}$, the induced polarization $P_n$ and the form factor ratio $G^p_E/G^p_M$ were measured under identical kinematics. The deuterium and hydrogen results are in good agreement with each other and with the plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA).

Abstract:
Quadrupole amplitudes in the $\gamma^{*}N\to\Delta$ transition are associated with the issue of nucleon deformation. A search for these small amplitudes has been the focus of a series of measurements undertaken at Bates/MIT by the OOPS collaboration. We report on results from H$(e,e^\prime p)\pi^0$ data obtained at $Q^2= 0.070$ (GeV/c)$^2$ and invariant mass of W=1155 MeV using the out-of-plane detection technique with the OOPS spectrometers. The $\sigma_{LT}$ and $\sigma_{T}+\epsilon\cdot$ $\sigma_{L}$ response functions were isolated. These results, along with those of previous measurements at $W$=1172 MeV and $Q^2= 0.127$ (GeV/c)$^2$, aim in elucidating the interplay between resonant and non resonant amplitudes.

Abstract:
We report the first precision measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio from spin-dependent elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized hydrogen internal gas target. The measurement was performed at the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring over a range of four-momentum transfer squared $Q^2$ from 0.15 to 0.65 (GeV/c)$^2$. Significantly improved results on the proton electric and magnetic form factors are obtained in combination with previous cross-section data on elastic electron-proton scattering in the same $Q^2$ region.