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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 454964 matches for " W. M. Smathers "
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Incremental Investment Value of Waterfowl Impoundments in the Upstate of South Carolina, USA
R. Z. Clardy,W. M. Smathers, Jr.,T. J. Straka
Wildlife Biology in Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Financial incentives and economic factors play a role in expansion and survival of waterfowl in the Upstate of South Carolina. Satisfying a basic biological need, waterfowl impoundments are an effective way to ensure that migrating ducks have a food source, cover, and water on their journey south during the winter months (duck hunting season), but also year-round to ensure these birds return annually. Development of the region’s rural areas has resulted in a decrease in total area of flooded wetlands designated to waterfowl and a decline in waterfowl populations. At the same time, the willingness to pay to hunt ducks has escalated. South Carolinians drive across the United States in search for duck hunting when the same hunting experience could be created in their own backyard. The incremental value of creating a waterfowl impoundment was determined on five different properties in the Upstate of South Carolina (the study area). A discounted cost flow analysis approach was used that considered initial costs (a pond leveler, site preparation work, and blind building), recurring costs, and hunter revenue. The model also considered the opportunity cost of foregoing the harvest of planted crops on the land. Realistic examples are provided with corresponding net present values and geographic information system generated maps illustrate the layout of these impoundments. Waterfowl impoundments were found to produce significant financial return.
Delays in Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections: A Multicenter, Community Hospital Study
Rebekah W. Moehring, Richard Sloane, Luke F. Chen, Emily C. Smathers, Kenneth E. Schmader, Vance G. Fowler, David J. Weber, Daniel J. Sexton, Deverick J. Anderson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076225
Abstract: Background Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious condition with estimated 30% mortality. Clinical outcomes for patients with severe infections improve when antibiotics are appropriately chosen and given early. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of prior healthcare exposure on time to appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with gram-negative BSI. Method We performed a multicenter cohort study of adult, hospitalized patients with gram-negative BSI using time to event analysis in nine community hospitals from 2003-2006. Event time was defined as the first administration of an antibiotic with in vitro activity against the infecting organism. Healthcare exposure status was categorized as community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or hospital-acquired. Time to appropriate therapy among groups of patients with differing healthcare exposure status was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results The cohort included 578 patients with gram-negative BSI, including 320 (55%) healthcare-associated, 217 (38%) community-acquired, and 41 (7%) hospital-acquired infections. 529 (92%) patients received an appropriate antibiotic during their hospitalization. Time to appropriate therapy was significantly different among the groups of healthcare exposure status (log-rank p=0.02). Time to first antibiotic administration regardless of drug appropriateness was not different between groups (p=0.3). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval) were 0.80 (0.65-0.98) for healthcare-associated and 0.72 (0.63-0.82) for hospital-acquired, relative to patients with community-acquired BSI. In multivariable analysis, interaction was found between the main effect and baseline Charlson comorbidity index. When Charlson index was 3, adjusted HRs were 0.66 (0.48-0.92) for healthcare-associated and 0.57 (0.44-0.75) for hospital-acquired, relative to patients with community-acquired infections. Conclusions Patients with healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired BSI experienced delays in receipt of appropriate antibiotics for gram-negative BSI compared to patients with community-acquired BSI. This difference was not due to delayed initiation of antibiotic therapy, but due to the inappropriate choice of antibiotic.
Bloodstream Infections in Community Hospitals in the 21st Century: A Multicenter Cohort Study
Deverick J. Anderson, Rebekah W. Moehring, Richard Sloane, Kenneth E. Schmader, David J. Weber, Vance G. Fowler, Emily Smathers, Daniel J. Sexton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091713
Abstract: Background While the majority of healthcare in the US is provided in community hospitals, the epidemiology and treatment of bloodstream infections in this setting is unknown. Methods and Findings We undertook this multicenter, retrospective cohort study to 1) describe the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) in a network of community hospitals and 2) determine risk factors for inappropriate therapy for bloodstream infections in community hospitals. 1,470 patients were identified as having a BSI in 9 community hospitals in the southeastern US from 2003 through 2006. The majority of BSIs were community-onset, healthcare associated (n = 823, 56%); 432 (29%) patients had community-acquired BSI, and 215 (15%) had hospital-onset, healthcare-associated BSI. BSIs due to multidrug-resistant pathogens occurred in 340 patients (23%). Overall, the three most common pathogens were S. aureus (n = 428, 28%), E. coli (n = 359, 24%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n = 148, 10%), though type of infecting organism varied by location of acquisition (e.g., community-acquired). Inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was given to 542 (38%) patients. Proportions of inappropriate therapy varied by hospital (median = 33%, range 21–71%). Multivariate logistic regression identified the following factors independently associated with failure to receive appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy: hospital where the patient received care (p<0.001), assistance with ≥3 ADLs (p = 0.005), Charlson score (p = 0.05), community-onset, healthcare-associated infection (p = 0.01), and hospital-onset, healthcare-associated infection (p = 0.02). Important interaction was observed between Charlson score and location of acquisition. Conclusions Our large, multicenter study provides the most complete picture of BSIs in community hospitals in the US to date. The epidemiology of BSIs in community hospitals has changed: community-onset, healthcare-associated BSI is most common, S. aureus is the most common cause, and 1 of 3 patients with a BSI receives inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy. Our data suggest that appropriateness of empiric antimicrobial therapy is an important and needed performance metric for physicians and hospital stewardship programs in community hospitals.
The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions
Rebecca L Smathers, Dennis R Petersen
Human Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-5-3-170
Abstract: Hydrophobic ligands, such as fatty acids (FAs) and their acyl-CoA derivatives (FA-CoA), serve many biological functions within the cell. They serve as metabolic energy sources, substrates for membranes and signalling molecules for metabolic regulation [1,2]. The insoluble properties of FAs make for the requirement for chaperones to bind and transfer them throughout various cellular compartments, including the peroxisomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and nucleus. A family of highly expressed intracellular lipid-binding proteins (iLBPs)--the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs)--serves to bind these free ligands with high affinity. FABPs are ubiquitously expressed throughout tissues that are highly active in FA metabolism and comprise several isoforms. To date, nine FABP protein-coding genes have been identified in the human genome. These include liver(L-FABP), intestine- (I-FABP), heart- (H-FABP), adipocyte- (A-FABP), epidermal- (E-FABP), ileal-(Il-FABP), brain- (B-FABP), myelin- (M-FABP) and testis-FABP (T-FABP). These different isoforms were first named for the organ in which they were first identified or mostly predominate, but their expression profiles are not exclusive to that specific organ. For example, L-FABP is not only expressed in the liver, but also in the intestine, pancreas, kidney, lung and stomach. In addition to the nine known FABPs that have been widely studied, a newer member of the family, FABP12, has recently been discovered. The gene has been identified, but published reports on the protein encoded by this gene are not yet available. Therefore, in this reviews only the identification of the gene will be addressed.Although members of the FABP family share moderate sequence homologies of 20-70 per cent, their tertiary structures are virtually superimposable [3-5]. Sequences of human FABPs are aligned in Figure 1. These ~15-kilodalton proteins comprise ten anti-parallel β-barrel (βA-βJ) structures containing a solvent-accessi
Determination of Radium-226 in Rock Samples by Liquid Scintillation Counter  [PDF]
W. M. Abdellah
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2019.94023
Abstract: The present work examines the validity of using barium as a carrier for radium-226 determination and optimizes the amount added during the radiochemical separation from rock samples. The activity concentration of Ra-226 is determined in rock samples by liquid scintillation spectrometer via its short-lived daughters after the radiochemical separation. The activity of Ra-226 was calculated based on the counts measured in a window set for Po-214 peak. The activity measured by Liquid Scintillation Counter, LSC using Pulse Shape Analysis, PSA. Ba-133 was used for chemical yield. The applied method was tested using a Certified Reference Material, CRM ore number-Dl-1a which shows a good agreement with the certified values. The applied method for measuring Ra-226 has been adapted to be used in rocks such as monazite. The average activity for Ra-226 in rock samples collected from the commercial grade Egyptian monazite was 13.85 ± 2.05 Bq/g with a detection limit 9.58 mBq/g. The optimum conditions have been established during the present work such as precision, cost and time preparation which makes the method useful for radio chemists and the decision makers.
Monitoring the Sequelae of Coronary Microembolization on Myocardium Using Noninvasive Imaging (Review)  [PDF]
M. Saeed, M. W. Wilson
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.412073
Abstract: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It has been clinically classified into 1) ischemic from a primary coronary event (e.g., plaque rupture or thrombotic occlusion), 2) ischemic from a supply-and-demand mismatch and c) ischemic from a percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Catheter-based PCI has been frequently used as an alternative to conventional bypass surgery for patients at high risk. However, this method of treatment is associated with microvascular obstruction (MVO) by dislodged microemboli that results in left ventricular (LV) dysfunction/remodeling, perfusion deficits, microinfarction and arrhythmia. The contributions of microemboli after revascularization of AMI have been acknowledged by major cardiac and interventional societies. Recent studies showed that Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier offers increased sensitivity and capability for detecting dislodged coronary microemboli during PCI. Coronary microembolization can be detected directly by monitoring intra-myocardial contrast opacification on contrast echocardiography, increasing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography, loss/diminution of signal on first pass perfusion and hypoenhanced zone on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and indirectly by ST-segment elevation on electro-cardiography (ECG). The relations between volumes/sizes of microemboli, visibility of microinfarct, myocardial perfusion and LV function are still under intensive discussions. Non-invasive imaging can play important role in assessing these parameters. This review shed the light on the techniques used for detecting coronary microemboli, microvascular obstruction and microinfarct and the short- and long-term effects of microemboli on LV function, structure and perfusion.
Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production  [PDF]
Geraldin M. W. Lengai, James W. Muthomi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.66002
Abstract: Biopesticides are derivatives of plants, microorganisms and insects. Substances from plants and animals have been used to manage diseases in crops, animals and humans. Reliance on nature to heal nature is a practise for many people around the world. Use of natural products was overtaken by synthetic chemicals due to their efficacy, reliability and quick knock down effect. However, synthetic pesticides have become a health hazards for humans and environment due to their toxicity and pollution. Biopesticides are potential alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Sources of biopesticides are readily available, easily biodegradable, exhibit various modes of action, are less expensive and have low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Neem, pyrethrum, cotton and tobacco are known sources of botanical pesticides and have already been commercialized. Other sources of botanical pesticides include garlic, euphorbia, citrus, pepper among others. Species of Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Beauveria have been commercialized as microbial pesticides. Biopesticides are however faced with challenges of formulation, registration, commercialization, acceptance and adoption. This paper describes several aspects of biopesticide development, including but not limited to, their sources, production, formulation, commercialization, efficacy and role in sustainable agriculture.
Evaluation of Inverse Modeling Techniques for Pinpointing Water Leakages at Building Constructions  [PDF]
A. W. M. van Schijndel
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2015.51002
Abstract: The location and nature of the moisture leakages are sometimes difficult to detect. Moreover, the relation between observed inside surface moisture patterns and where the moisture enters the construction is often not clear. The objective of this paper is to investigate inverse modeling techniques as a tool for the detection of moisture leakage locations in building constructions from inside surface moisture patterns. It is concluded that although the presented methodology is promising, more research is needed to confirm its usability.
Dynamic Nexus between Air-Transportation and Economic Growth: A Systematic Literature Review  [PDF]
Ruwan Higgoda, M. W. Madurapperuma
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92010
Abstract: Today’s economic growth is not promising without air transport, up-to-date airports infrastructure, efficient and safe airline services and international air transport networks. According to WB [1], 40% of the world-wide tourists travel by air transport. The main aim of this study is to analyze the literatures of air transport and economic growth study. A systematic literature review (SLR) method was used in order to examine related articles from ABDC list journals which are ranked on A*, A or B, published in period 1992-2018. This study gives a summary of the trends and research themes which have been identified. Key scholars, as well as their approaches and locations and citations are also mapped. The findings of this study show that there is a growing interest in researching and publishing on Air transportation and economic growth. This study fills a deficiency in specialized literature concerning air transportation in developing countries and provides a foundation for future research in the field of air transportation.
Walk Your Life to Health—Motivating Young Adolescents to Engage in a Brisk Walking Program  [PDF]
W. W. A. Ma, L. M. Y. Chung, C. W. W. Fong, D. Pendergast
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.617265
Abstract: Increasing numbers of overweight and obese children resulting from sedentary and abundant lifestyles are a health concern in Hong Kong and other affluent communities around the globe. The importance of physical activity is well documented for health and wellbeing, with sedentary behavior emerging as an independent risk factor for chronic diseases and mortality. In this study, Pender’s Health-Promotion Model informed the development of an intervention program aimed to engage junior high school students in increased physical activity, specifically brisk-walking. The model set out to motivate participants to engage in behaviors to enhance their health across the life span, including developing self-efficacy with regard to brisk walking. The intervention featured four stages. First, participants were provided with information about the benefits and in stage two were trained in the technique of brisk walking. Next they engaged in the brisk walking program and in stage four were encouraged to serve as health ambassadors by introducing brisk walking and its associated benefits to others, thereby exercising peer influence to diffuse the practice of brisk walking more widely among members of the community. Motivational strategies were used as incentives in the program, including the involvement of a popular singing band to award certificates at the completion of the program. This 7-week intervention program including a 4-week brisk walking component was conducted in a high school context with 71 participants. Data were collected to enable paired-sample t-tests to be conducted to statistically analyze the data at pre- and post-intervention. Findings indicate significant differences among the mean Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), knowledge and attitudes of the participants at pre- and post-intervention. These findings suggest that the intervention was effective as a strategy to reduce sedentary behavior with the concomitant effect of positive shifts in measurable indicators and attitudes.
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