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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 592238 matches for " W. J. S. Aston "
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The Use of Massive Endoprostheses for the Treatment of Bone Metastases
D. H. Park,P. K. Jaiswal,W. Al-Hakim,W. J. S. Aston,R. C. Pollock,J. A. Skinner,S. R. Cannon,T. W. R. Briggs
Sarcoma , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/62151
Abstract: Purpose. We report a series of 58 patients with metastatic bone disease treated with resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction over a five-year period at our institution. Introduction. The recent advances in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in cancer treatment have resulted in improved prognosis of patients with bone metastases. Most patients who have either an actual or impending pathological fracture should have operative stabilisation or reconstruction. Endoprosthetic reconstructions are indicated in patients with extensive bone loss, failed conventional reconstructions, and selected isolated metastases. Methods and Results. We identified all patients who were diagnosed with metastatic disease to bone between 1999 and 2003. One hundred and seventy-one patients were diagnosed with bone metastases. Metastatic breast and renal cancer accounted for 84 lesions (49%). Fifty-eight patients with isolated bone metastasis to the appendicular skeleton had an endoprosthetic reconstruction. There were 28 males and 30 females. Twelve patients had an endoprosthesis in the upper extremity and 46 patients had an endoprosthesis in the lower extremity. The mean age at presentation was 62 years (24 to 88). At the time of writing, 19 patients are still alive, 34 patients have died, and 5 have been lost to follow up. Patients were followed up and evaluated using the musculoskeletal society tumour score (MSTS) and the Toronto extremity salvage score (TESS). The mean MSTS was 73% (57% to 90%) and TESS was 71% (46% to 95%). Mean follow-up was 48.2 months (range 27 to 82 months) and patients died of disease at a mean of 22 months (2 to 51 months) from surgery. Complications included 5 superficial wound infections, 1 aseptic loosening, 4 dislocations, 1 subluxation, and 1 case, where the tibial component of a prosthesis rotated requiring open repositioning. Conclusions. We conclude that endoprosthetic replacement for the treatment of isolated bone metastases is a reliable method of limb reconstruction in selected cases. It is associated with low complication and failure rates in our series, and achieves the aims of restoring function, allowing early weight bearing and alleviating pain.
Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?
Philip J. Aston
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/97/52001
Abstract: Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating methods will have been removed, requiring a radical reappraisal both of radioisotope dating methods and of currently predicted dates obtained using these methods.
Modeling macroeconomic time series via heavy tailed distributions
J. A. D. Aston
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1214/074921706000001003
Abstract: It has been shown that some macroeconomic time series, especially those where outliers could be present, can be well modelled using heavy tailed distributions for the noise components. Methods for deciding when and where heavy-tailed models should be preferred are investigated. These investigations primarily focus on automatic methods for model identification and selection. Current methods are extended to incorporate a non-Gaussian selection element, and various different criteria for deciding on which overall model should be used are examined.
Computing the Invariant Measure and the Lyapunov Exponent for One-Dimensional Maps using a Measure-Preserving Polynomial Basis
Philip J. Aston,Oliver Junge
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We consider a generalisation of Ulam's method for approximating invariant densities of one-dimensional chaotic maps. Rather than use piecewise constant polynomials to approximate the density, we use polynomials of degree n which are defined by the requirement that they preserve the measure on n+1 neighbouring subintervals. Over the whole interval, this results in a discontinuous piecewise polynomial approximation to the density. We prove error results where this approach is used to approximate smooth densities. We also consider the computation of the Lyapunov exponent using the polynomial density and show that the order of convergence is one order better than for the density itself. Together with using cubic polynomials in the density approximation, this yields a very efficient method for computing highly accurate estimates of the Lyapunov exponent. We illustrate the theoretical findings with some examples.
Teaching Feminist Poststructuralism: Founding Scholars Still Relevant Today  [PDF]
Megan Aston
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.715220
Abstract: This article presents the experiences of one academic educator/researcher learning about and ultimately teaching feminist poststructuralism (FPS) over 20 years. Ideas from foundational postructural and feminist theorists such as Foucault, Butler, Scott and Weedon are presented and brought together into to a particular understanding of FPS. A discussion of how FPS is applied to health education and research will be presented along with clinical examples. After many years of mentoring and teaching students and colleagues about FPS, the author has created a general guide for beginners to help them use FPS in research and practice. This guide has successfully been used with students and colleagues in Canada as well as with colleagues in Tanzania.
Variants in KCNQ1 increase type II diabetes susceptibility in South Asians: A study of 3,310 subjects from India and the US
Latonya F Been, Sarju Ralhan, Gurpreet S Wander, Narinder K Mehra, JaiRup Singh, John J Mulvihill, Christopher E Aston, Dharambir K Sanghera
BMC Medical Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-18
Abstract: We examined the association between four variants in the KCNQ1 gene with T2D and related quantitative traits in a total of 3,310 Asian Indian participants from two different cohorts comprising 2,431 individuals of the Punjabi case-control cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study and 879 migrant Asian Indians living in the US.Our data confirmed the association of a new signal at the KCNQ1 locus (rs231362) with T2D showing an allelic odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 95%CI [1.08-1.43], p = 0.002 in the Punjabi cohort. A moderate association with T2D was also seen for rs2237895 in the Punjabi (OR 1.14; p = 0.036) and combined cohorts (meta-analysis OR 1.14; p = 0.018). Three-site haplotype analysis of rs231362, rs2237892, rs2237895 exhibited considerably stronger evidence of association of the GCC haplotype with T2D showing OR of 1.24 95%CI [1.00-1.53], p = 0.001, permutation p = 8 × 10-4 in combined cohorts. The 'C' risk allele carriers of rs2237895 had significantly reduced measures of HOMA-B in the US cohort (p = 0.008) as well as in combined cohort in meta-analysis (p = 0.009).Our investigation has confirmed that the variation within the KCNQ1 locus confers a significant risk to T2D among Asian Indians. Haplotype analysis further suggested that the T2D risk associated with KCNQ1 SNPs may be derived from 'G' allele of rs231362 and 'C' allele of rs2237895 and this appears to be mediated through β cell function.The potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily member 1 (KCNQ1) is a member of 11 mammalian Kv channel families and has been extensively studied for its role in long QT syndrome. Mutations in KCNQ1 have been described to lead to cardiac long QT syndrome, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, which are associated with cardiac conduction abnormalities and hearing loss [1]. KCNQ1 is expressed mainly in the heart, and to lesser extent in the pancreas, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and adipose tissue. In addition, KCNQ1 is expressed in vitro in insulin-secreting cel
Sensors and Actuators for the Advanced LIGO Mirror Suspensions
L. Carbone,S. M. Aston,R. M. Cutler,A. Freise,J. Greenhalgh,J. Heefner,D. Hoyland,N. A. Lockerbie,D. Lodhia,N. A. Robertson,C. C. Speake,K. A. Strain,A. Vecchio
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/29/11/115005
Abstract: We have developed, produced and characterised integrated sensors, actuators and the related read-out and drive electronics that will be used for the control of the Advanced LIGO suspensions. The overall system consists of the BOSEMs (displacement sensor with integrated electro-magnetic actuator), the satellite boxes (BOSEM readout and interface electronics) and six different types of coil-driver units. In this paper we present the design of this read-out and control system, we discuss the related performance relevant for the Advanced LIGO suspensions, and we report on the experimental activity finalised at the production of the instruments for the Advanced LIGO detectors.
Community Detection in Dynamic Social Networks  [PDF]
Nathan Aston, Wei Hu
Communications and Network (CN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2014.62015

There are many community detection algorithms for discovering communities in networks, but very few deal with networks that change structure. The SCAN (Structural Clustering Algorithm for Networks) algorithm is one of these algorithms that detect communities in static networks. To make SCAN more effective for the dynamic social networks that are continually changing their structure, we propose the algorithm DSCAN (Dynamic SCAN) which improves SCAN to allow it to update a local structure in less time than it would to run SCAN on the entire network. We also improve SCAN by removing the need for parameter tuning. DSCAN, tested on real world dynamic networks, performs faster and comparably to SCAN from one timestamp to another, relative to the size of the change. We also devised an approach to genetic algorithms for detecting communities in dynamic social networks, which performs well in speed and modularity.

Ordered Rate Constitutive Theories for Non-Classical Thermoviscoelastic Fluids with Internal Rotation Rates  [PDF]
K. S. Surana, S. W. Long, J. N. Reddy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.98063
The paper presents constitutive theories for non-classical thermoviscoelastic fluids with dissipation and memory using a thermodynamic framework based on entirety of velocity gradient tensor. Thus, the conservation and the balance laws used in this work incorporate symmetric as well as antisymmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor. The constitutive theories derived here hold in coand contra-variant bases as well as in Jaumann rates and are derived using convected time derivatives of Green’s and Almansi strain tensors as well as the Cauchy stress tensor and its convected time derivatives in appropriate bases. The constitutive theories are presented in the absence as well as in the presence of the balance of moment of moments as balance law. It is shown that the dissipation mechanism and the fading memory in such fluids are due to stress rates as well as moment rates and their conjugates. The material coefficients are derived for the general forms of the constitutive theories based on integrity. Simplified linear (or quasi-linear) forms of the constitutive theories are also presented. Maxwell, Oldroyd-B and Giesekus constitutive models for non-classical thermoviscoelastic fluids are derived and are compared with those derived based on classical continuum mechanics. Both, compressible and incompressible thermoviscoelastic fluids are considered.
A Study of Design Optimization Using Response Surface Analysis and Fabricaiton MEMS Probe Tip  [PDF]
K. B. Kim, J. W. Lee, S. J. Ha, Y. K. Cho, M. W. Cho
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.32030

In semiconductor manufacturing process, probe station that is testing equipment is important. Inspection step is for detecting defects on semiconductor before the packaging. Probe card is a part of probe station and contains probe tip that contacts to semiconductor. Through probe tip, it can inspect defects of semiconductor. In this paper, optimization method is used with response surface analysis to design MEMS type probe tip. And fabricating probe tip uses maskless lithography, electro-plating and lapping process.

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