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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84412 matches for " W. Busza "
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Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC
R. L. Jaffe,W. Busza,J. Sandweiss,F. Wilczek
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125
Abstract: We discuss speculative disaster scenarios inspired by hypothetical new fundamental processes that might occur in high energy relativistic heavy ion collisions. We estimate the parameters relevant to black hole production; we find that they are absurdly small. We show that other accelerator and (especially) cosmic ray environments have already provided far more auspicious opportunities for transition to a new vacuum state, so that existing observations provide stringent bounds. We discuss in most detail the possibility of producing a dangerous strangelet. We argue that four separate requirements are necessary for this to occur: existence of large stable strangelets, metastability of intermediate size strangelets, negative charge for strangelets along the stability line, and production of intermediate size strangelets in the heavy ion environment. We discuss both theoretical and experimental reasons why each of these appears unlikely; in particular, we know of no plausible suggestion for why the third or especially the fourth might be true. Given minimal physical assumptions the continued existence of the Moon, in the form we know it, despite billions of years of cosmic ray exposure, provides powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production.
Trends in multiparticle production and some "predictions" for pp and PbPb collisions at LHC
Wit Busza
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/35/4/044040
Abstract: Based on trends seen at lower energies we "predict" the multiplicities and pseudorapidity distributions of particle density and elliptic flow that will be seen in PbPb and pp collisions at the LHC. We argue that, if these predictions turn out to be correct, either these quantities are insensitive to the state of matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions or the observed simplicity and universality of the data must be telling us something profound about the mechanism of particle production, which to this date is not well understood.
A Personal Account of Some PHOBOS Physics
Wit Busza
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: This paper discusses some aspects of PHOBOS physics and its origins, in particular participant scaling and extended longitudinal scaling, seen in A+A and h+A collisions at all energies.
Structure and Fine Structure in Multiparticle Production Data at High Energies
Wit Busza
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: A summary is given of data on the longitudinal rapidity and pseudorapidity distributions observed in $e^+e^-$, pp, pA and AA collisions at high energies. The remarkable simplicity and universality observed in the data and its relevance to the study of the high energy density system produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.
Extended Longitudinal Scaling: direct evidence of saturation
Wit Busza
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.12.015
Abstract: Multiparticle production of charged particles at high energies exhibit the phenomenon of Limiting Fragmentation. Furthermore, the region in rapidity over which the production of particles appears to be independent of energy, increases with energy. It is argued that this phenomenon, known as Extended Longitudinal Scaling, is a direct manifestation of some kind of saturation, akin to that in the Color Glass Condensate picture of particle production.
Lessons from PHOBOS
Wit Busza,for the PHOBOS collaboration
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.09.010
Abstract: In June 2005 the PHOBOS Collaboration completed data taking at RHIC. In five years of operation PHOBOS recorded information for Au+Au at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu+Cu at 22.4, 62.4 and 200 GeV, d+Au at 201 GeV, and p+p at 200 and 410 GeV, altogether more than one billion collisions. Using these data we have studied the energy and centrality dependence of the global properties of charged particle production over essentially the full 4$\pi$ solid angle and (for pions near mid rapidity) charged particle spectra down to transverse momenta below 30 MeV/c. We have also studied correlations of particles separated in pseudorapidity by up to 6 units. We find that the global properties of heavy ion collisions can be described in terms of a small number of simple dependencies on energy and centrality, and that there are strong correlations between the produced particles. To date no single model has been proposed which describes this rich phenomenology. In this talk I summarize what the data is explicitly telling us.
Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review
Joanna Busza,Damilola Walker,Alana Hairston,Alicia Gable
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.4.17373
Abstract: Introduction: Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting). To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods: First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results: Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding) and at community level (e.g., participatory women's groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention). Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions: Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence-based interventions to occur, comprehensive process evaluations are needed to elucidate the pathways through which specific interventions achieve desired PMTCT outcomes. A social ecological framework can help analyze the complex interplay of facilitators and barriers to PMTCT service uptake in each context, thus helping to inform selection of locally relevant community-based interventions.
PER-TIM Interactions with the Photoreceptor Cryptochrome Mediate Circadian Temperature Responses in Drosophila
Rachna Kaushik,Pipat Nawathean,Ania Busza,Alejandro Murad,Patrick Emery,Michael Rosbash
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050146
Abstract: Drosophila cryptochrome (CRY) is a key circadian photoreceptor that interacts with the period and timeless proteins (PER and TIM) in a light-dependent manner. We show here that a heat pulse also mediates this interaction, and heat-induced phase shifts are severely reduced in the cryptochrome loss-of-function mutant cryb. The period mutant perL manifests a comparable CRY dependence and dramatically enhanced temperature sensitivity of biochemical interactions and behavioral phase shifting. Remarkably, CRY is also critical for most of the abnormal temperature compensation of perL flies, because a perL; cryb strain manifests nearly normal temperature compensation. Finally, light and temperature act together to affect rhythms in wild-type flies. The results indicate a role for CRY in circadian temperature as well as light regulation and suggest that these two features of the external 24-h cycle normally act together to dictate circadian phase.
Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental, and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review
Sian Oram ,Heidi St?ckl,Joanna Busza,Louise M. Howard,Cathy Zimmerman
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001224
Abstract: Background There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%–42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I2 = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Conclusions Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
"Driving the devil away": qualitative insights into miraculous cures for AIDS in a rural Tanzanian ward
Maria Roura, Ray Nsigaye, Benjamin Nhandi, Joyce Wamoyi, Joanna Busza, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-427
Abstract: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 FLs purposively selected to account for all the denominations present in the area. Data was organised into themes using the software package NVIVO-7. The field work guidelines were tailored as new topics emerged and additional codes progressively added to the coding frame.Traditional healers (THs) and FLs were often reported as antagonists but duality prevailed and many FLs simultaneously believed in traditional healing. Inter-denomination mobility was high and guided by pragmatism.Praying for the sick was a common practice and over one third of respondents said that prayer could cure HIV. Being HIV-positive was often seen as "a punishment from God" and a consequence of sin. As sinning could result from "the work of Satan", forgiveness was possible, and a "reconciliation with God" deemed as essential for a favourable remission of the disease. Several FLs believed that "evil spirits" inflicted through witchcraft could cause the disease and claimed that they could cast "demons" away.While prayers could potentially cure HIV "completely", ART use was generally not discouraged because God had "only a part to play". The perceived potential superiority of spiritual options could however lead some users to interrupt treatment.The roll-out of ART is taking place in a context in which the new drugs are competing with a diversity of existing options. As long as the complementarities of prayers and ART are not clearly and explicitly stated by FLs, spiritual options may be interpreted as a superior alternative and contribute to hampering adherence to ART. In contexts where ambivalent attitudes towards the new drugs prevail, enhancing FLs understanding of ART's strengths and pitfalls is an essential step to engage them as active partners in ART scale-up programs.Religious organizations are a fundamental part of the social structure in rural Africa and since the beginning of the HIV epidemic have played a major role providing material
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