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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84402 matches for " W Kudzi "
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Pharmacogenetics in Ghana: Reviewing the evidence
W Kudzi, GO Adjei, D Ofori-Adjei, ANO Dodoo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Different clinical response of different patients to the same medicine has been recognised and documented since the 1950’s. Variability in response of individuals to standard doses of drug therapy is important in clinical practice and can lead to therapeutic failures or adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics seeks to identify individual genetic differences (polymorphisms) in drug absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion that can affect the activity of a particular drug with the view of improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. Although knowledge of pharmacogenetics is being translated into clinical practice in the developed world, its applicability in the developing countries is low. Several factors account for this including the fact that there is very little pharmacogenetic information available in many indigenous African populations including Ghanaians. A number of genes including Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, MDR1 and TPMT have been genotyped in the Ghanaian population since the completion of the Human genome project. There is however, an urgent need to increase pharmacogenetic research in Ghana to increase availability of data. Introducing Pharmacogenetics into the curriculum of Medical and Pharmacy training institutions will influence translating knowledge of pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. This will also equip health professionals with the skill to integrate genetic information into public health decision making.
Genetic polymorphisms in MDR1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes in a Ghanaian population: a plausible explanation for altered metabolism of ivermectin in humans?
William Kudzi, Alexander NO Dodoo, Jeremy J Mills
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-111
Abstract: Using PCR-RFLP, relevant polymorphic alleles of MDR1 and CYP3A4 genes were analysed in 204 randomly selected individuals and in 42 ivermectin treated patients.We recorded significantly higher MDR1 (3435T) variant allele frequency in suboptimal responders (21%) than in patients who responded to treatment (12%) or the random population sample (11%). CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 alleles were detected at varied frequencies for the sampled Ghanaian population, responders and suboptimal responders to ivermectin. CYP3A5*1/CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*1/CYP3A5*3 genotypes were also found to be significantly different for responders and suboptimal responders. Haplotype (*1/*1/*3/*1) was determined to be significantly different between responders and suboptimal responders indicating a possible role of these haplotypes in treatment response with ivermectin.A profile of pharmacogenetically relevant variants for MDR1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes has been generated for a random population of 204 Ghanaians to address the scarcity of data within indigenous African populations. In 42 patients treated with ivermectin, difference in MDR1 variant allele frequency was observed between suboptimal responders and responders.P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a product of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), is a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporter family. It is widely recognised as a component in the disposition of a large number of drugs [1,2]. P-gp is normally located in tissues with excretory (liver, kidney) and barrier (intestine, blood-brain, blood-testis blood-ovarian, and placenta) functions [3-5]. P-gp acts as a protective barrier to keep toxic substances out of the body and prevent the accumulation of drugs in sensitive organs. Several studies have identified genetic polymorphisms within the MDR1 gene with altered P-gp expression levels and functionality in tissues as well as effects on drug response and clinical outcomes [6,7]. These polymorphisms have been r
Characterisation of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a Ghanaian population
William Kudzi, Alexander NO Dodoo, Jeremy J Mills
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-124
Abstract: RFLP assays were used to genotype CYP2C8 (*2, *3, *4) variant alleles in 204 unrelated Ghanaians. CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C19 (*2 and *3) variants were determined by single-tube tetra-primer assays while CYP2C9 (*3, *4, *5 and *11) variants were assessed by direct sequencing.Allelic frequencies were obtained for CYP2C8*2 (17%), CYP2C8*3 (0%), CYP2C8*4 (0%), CYP2C9*2 (0%), CYP2C9*3 (0%), CYP2C9*4 (0%), CYP2C9*5 (0%), CYP2C9*11 (2%), CYP2C19*2 (6%) and CYP2C19*3 (0%).Allele frequency distributions for CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 among the Ghanaian population are comparable to other African ethnic groups but significantly differ from Caucasian and Asian populations. Variant allele frequencies for CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are reported for the first time among indigenous Ghanaian population.Variant allele frequencies of many pharmacogenetically-relevant polymorphisms have been demonstrated to vary greatly between populations of different countries. However, some areas of the world especially indigenous African populations have scarcity information in the current pharmacogenetics research [1,2] Cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) subfamily of enzymes form 18-30% of human CYPs and metabolises nearly 20% of all therapeutic drugs commonly prescribed in clinical practice [3]. CYP2C gene is made up of four isoforms, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 which are located together on chromosome 10q24. This CYP2C subfamily of enzymes constitutes 15-20% of the CYP protein in the liver [3] and exhibit genetic polymorphisms leading to differences in activities of these enzymes. Genetic polymorphisms of this CYP2C subfamily of enzymes are thought to influence both efficacy of drugs and the likelihood of ADRs [4].CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzymes constitute 26%, 50%, and 16% respectively of the CYP2C subfamily [5]. They are polymorphically expressed with variable allele frequencies among different ethnic populations [2,6,7], Some of these CYP2C variant alleles have been associated with either an increased
Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent
Edmund T Nartey, Mark Ofosuhene, William Kudzi, Caleb M Agbale
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-65
Abstract: Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P?<?0.05 was considered significant.The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000?mg/kg body weight p.o.C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.
. W.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1951,
Creation of High Energy/Intensity Bremsstrahlung by a Multi-Target and Focusing of the Scattered Electrons by Small-Angle Backscatter at a Cone Wall and a Magnetic Field—Enhancement of the Outcome of Linear Accelerators in Radiotherapy  [PDF]
W. Ulmer
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.24020
Abstract: The yield of bremsstrahlung (BS) from collisions of fast electrons (energy at least 6 MeV) with a Tungsten target can be significantly improved by exploitation of Tungsten wall scatter in a multi-layered target. A simplified version of a previously developed principle is also able to focus on small angle scattered electrons by a Tungsten wall. It is necessary that the thickness of each Tungsten layer does not exceed 0.04 mm—a thickness of 0.03 mm is suitable for accelerators in medical physics. Further focusing of electrons results from suitable magnetic fields with field strength between 0.5 Tesla and 1.2 Tesla (if the cone with multi-layered targets is rather narrow). Linear accelerators in radiation therapy only need to be focused by wall scatter without further magnetic fields (a standard case: 31 plates with 0.03 mm thickness and 1 mm distance between the plates). We considered three cases with importance in medical physics: A very small cone with an additional magnetic field for focusing (the field diameter at 90 cm depth: 6 cm), a medium cone with an optional magnetic field (field diameter at 90 cm depth: 13 cm) and a broad cone without a magnetic field (
Social Issues of Urban Road Rehabilitation  [PDF]
W. Supul
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.63022
This study highlights the social issues of an urban road confronted after the recent rehabilitation works. The study reveals that the road has facilitated faster travel with rider comfort but does not provide a very safe place for residents, children of the kindergarten and school and, walkers. The study has identified several social impacts caused by rehabilitation such as walker and resident un-comfort, inconvenience for businesses, not abating environmental pollution, absence of facilities for disable people and several more. Because the road platform is devoid of trees, the motorists, residents and pedestrians are stripped off of an array of benefits. Nor the road design has considered the comfort of walkers especially disable, elderly, sick and children by not providing a fully connected road walkway and not providing any tree shade and benches to have a rest on a hot and sunny day. The road has also not addressed environmental concerns especially the mechanisms for reduction of impacts of particle and other noxious gases emanating from motor vehicle movement on inhabitants. A method to analyze road impacts is included that serves as an aid for future rehabilitation of urban roads.
On the Origin of Mass and Angular Momentum of Stellar Objects  [PDF]
Peter C. W. Fung, K. W. Wong
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615235
Abstract: The consequence of the 5D projection theory [1] is extended beyond the Gell-Mann Standard Model for hadrons to cover astronomical objects and galaxies. The proof of Poincare conjecture by Pe-relman’s differential geometrical techniques led us to the consequence that charged massless spinors reside in a 5D void of a galactic core, represented by either an open 5D core or a closed, time frozen, 3D × 1D space structure, embedded in massive structural stellar objects such as stars and planets. The open galactic core is obtained from Ricci Flow mapping. There exist in phase, in plane rotating massless spinors within these void cores, and are responsible for 1) the outward spiral motion of stars in the galaxy in the open core, and 2) self rotations of the massive stellar objects. It is noted that another set of eigen states pertaining to the massless charged spinor pairs rotating out of phase in 1D (out of the 5D manifold) also exist and will generate a relatively weak magnetic field out of the void core. For stars and planets, it forms the intrinsic dipole field. Due to the existence of a homogeneous 5D manifold from which we believe the universe evolves, the angular momentum arising from the rotation of the in-phase spinor pairs is proposed to be counter-balanced by the rotation of the matter in the surrounding Lorentz domain, so as to conserve net zero angular momentum. Explicit expression for this total angular momentum in terms of a number of convergent series is derived for the totally enclosed void case/core, forming in general the structure of a star or a planet. It is shown that the variables/parameters in the Lorentz space-time domain for these stellar objects involve the object’s mass M, the object’s Radius R, period of rotation P, and the 5D void radius Ro, together with the Fermi energy Ef and temperature T of the massless charged spinors residing in the void. We discovered three laws governing the relationships between Ro/R, T, Ef and the angular momentum Iω of such astronomical object of interest, from which we established two distinct regions, which we define as the First and Second Laws for the evolution of the stellar object. The Fermi energy Ef was found to be that of the electron mass, as it is the lightest massive elementary particle that could be created from pure energy in the core. In fact the mid-temperature of the transition region between the
Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production  [PDF]
Geraldin M. W. Lengai, James W. Muthomi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.66002
Abstract: Biopesticides are derivatives of plants, microorganisms and insects. Substances from plants and animals have been used to manage diseases in crops, animals and humans. Reliance on nature to heal nature is a practise for many people around the world. Use of natural products was overtaken by synthetic chemicals due to their efficacy, reliability and quick knock down effect. However, synthetic pesticides have become a health hazards for humans and environment due to their toxicity and pollution. Biopesticides are potential alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Sources of biopesticides are readily available, easily biodegradable, exhibit various modes of action, are less expensive and have low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Neem, pyrethrum, cotton and tobacco are known sources of botanical pesticides and have already been commercialized. Other sources of botanical pesticides include garlic, euphorbia, citrus, pepper among others. Species of Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Beauveria have been commercialized as microbial pesticides. Biopesticides are however faced with challenges of formulation, registration, commercialization, acceptance and adoption. This paper describes several aspects of biopesticide development, including but not limited to, their sources, production, formulation, commercialization, efficacy and role in sustainable agriculture.
Software Reuse: Developers’ Experiences and Perceptions  [PDF]
William W. Agresti
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.41006
Abstract: Reusing programs and other artifacts has been shown to be an effective strategy for significant reduction of development costs. This article reports on a survey of 128 developers to explore their experiences and perceptions about using other people’s code: to what extent does the “not invented here” attitude exist? The survey was structured around a novel and simple “4A” model, which is introduced in this article: for an organization to obtain any benefits from reusing code, four conditions must obtain: availability, awareness, accessibility, and acceptability. The greatest impediments to reuse were shown to be awareness of reusable code and developers’ perceptions of its acceptability for use on their new projects. For 72% of developers, the complexity of the old code was cited as a reason that the code was not reused. The survey also included developers’ suggestions for ways to take greater advantage of existing code and related artifacts.
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