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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84355 matches for " W Amogne "
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Diabetic foot disease in Ethiopian patients: A hospital based study
W Amogne, A Reja, A Amare
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Ulcers of the foot are one of the most feared and common complications of diabetes. It is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients and about 15% develop foot ulcers in their lifetime. So far, there are few published data in relation to the high-risk diabetic foot in Ethiopian subjects. Methods: A retrospective study was done to determine the various risks as well as antecedent factors, other long term complications, treatment profile and subsequent follow up of 196 patients with diabetic foot disease admitted to the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital from Jan 1999 to Dec 2003. Patients’ medical records were reviewed using pre-prepared formats and relevant data were abstracted. The data were analyzed using Epi info version 3.4.3 statistical soft ware. Results: A total of 196 patients were included in this study. The male to female ratio was 3 to 1. The median age was 60 years (IQR, 47-65). Median duration of symptoms before presentation was 21 days (IQR, 14-30) and the median duration of diabetes mellitus was144 months (IQR, 60-216). More than two thirds had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among 109 patients with identified antecedent risk factors for their foot problem, ill fitting or new shoes attributed in 48(44%). Neuro-ischaemic ulcers were seen in 113 (58%) of the cases and neuropathic ulcer in 63 (32%). Ulcer with cellulitis or gangrene was the most common mode of presentation seen in 92 (47%) of the patients. Ninety two (47%) patients had amputations. Re-amputation was necessary in 24 (26%) of these cases. Less than 40% of the total cases had a regular follow up either at a clinic or hospital. Diabetes was diagnosed for the first time in 7 cases (4%) on presentation with foot ulcer. The mean glycemic level was poorly controlled in over 80% of the cases. The overall mortality rate was 21% and sepsis was the most identified cause. Conclusion: Lack of regular patient follow up and diabetes education on foot care, poor glycemic control, delay in patient presentation and surgical intervention as well as patients’ refusal to undergo surgical interventions were the reported contributing factors for the observed high mortality. Recommendation: Diabetic education on foot care, emphasis on metabolic control of diabetes, early presentation and surgical intervention when appropriate has to be highlighted in the management of diabetic patients. More studies have to be done in relation to the high-risk diabetic foot particularly in the Ethiopian setting emphasizing on preventive aspects.
Assessment of Renal Function among HIV-Infected Patients on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kassahun Eneyew, Daniel Seifu, Wondwossen Amogne, M. K. C. Menon
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2016.73013
Abstract: Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of disease states characterized by progressive immunosuppression. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS than any other region of the world. Renal complications are important component of advanced HIV disease, and these complications significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Aim of the Study: To assess renal function abnormalities in HIV infected patients and compare with treatment-naive and HIV-negative control groups. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study of comparative nature was designed and samples and biochemical data were collected from July 1/2012 to February 1/2013 in patients attending the ART clinic at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Renal functions of 180 participants were assessed. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Result: A total of 180 participants grouped as HIV-negative controls (n = 60), HIV+ treatment-naive (n = 60) and HIV+ on HAART were recruited to participate in this study. Out of 180 participants included in the study, 59 (32.78%) were males and the remaining 121 (67.22%) were females. Mean serum total protein was higher in patients on HAART groups (5.78 ± 1.39) than treatment-naive (4.76 ± 2.19). There was significant reduction (p < 0.05) in serum total protein in both HIV+ groups as compared with the control groups. The mean serum creatinine level was not significantly different among three groups. The mean serum creatinine clearance in treatment-naive groups (111.05 ± 11.33) was lower than the control groups (115.05 ± 44.41) and patients on HAART (114.76 ± 28.54). There was a positive and significant correlation of glomerular filtration rate with BMI on treatment-naive groups. Conclusion: There are no statistically significant differences in the levels of Creatinine clearance and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in HIV positive patients (naive as well as treated) as compared to the negative controls. The prevalence of renal impairment as defined by CrCl < 60 mL/min (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) is higher in treatment-naive participants than those on HAART and HIV-negative control groups.
Rate of Nonadherence to Antipsychotic Medications and Factors Leading to Nonadherence among Psychiatric Patients in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Abyot Endale Gurmu,Esileman Abdela,Bashir Allele,Ermias Cheru,Bemnet Amogne
Advances in Psychiatry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/475812
Abstract: Objective. The main aim of this study was to assess the rate of medication nonadherence among psychiatry patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Materials and Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive method was conducted over a period of one month in May, 2013, at University of Gondar Hospital. Rate of nonadherence was computed using Medication Adherence Rating Scale questionnaire and self-reporting via a structured patient interview. Chi-square was used to determine the statistical significance of the association of variables with adherence. Result. Out of 209 respondents, 105 (50.2%) were found to be nonadherent. Patients who were forced to take their medication against their will (), those who did not believe they require medication (), and those who discontinued their medication without consulting their prescriber () had significant association with nonadherence. Adherence among schizophrenia was 75.7%; psychotic was 46.7%; bipolar disorder was 37.5%; and psychosis with depression was 52.6%. Reasons for nonadherence included recovery from the illness (26.7%), seeking alternative therapy and unavailability of drugs (18.1% each), adverse drug reaction (12.7%), forgetfulness (10.6%), and being busy (8.6%). Conclusion. The observed rate of antipsychotic medication nonadherence in this study was high. Interventions to increase adherence are therefore crucial. 1. Introduction Adherence to medication regimens has been monitored since the time of Hippocrates [1]. Adherence to a medication regimen is generally defined as the extent to which patients take medications as prescribed by their health care providers. It is clear that the full benefit of the many effective medications that are available will be achieved only if patients follow prescribed treatment regimens reasonably [2]. Because of the difficulties in measuring adherence, no estimate of adherence or nonadherence can be generalized, but poor adherence is to be expected in 30–50% of all patients, irrespective of disease, prognosis, or setting [3]. Study done in Washington showed that 74% of outpatients with schizophrenia stop taking neuroleptics or antipsychotics within two years of leaving a hospital and 20 to 57% patients with bipolar affective disorder are nonadherent [4]. Nonadherence to medication is known to be associated with poorer treatment outcomes, particularly in the management of chronic disease. In the treatment and management of psychotic disorders, the maximum benefit that a patient derives from these medications is highly dependent on their adherence to treatment. Although
Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy-Induced Hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-Positive and Negative Patients
Getnet Yimer, Getachew Aderaye, Wondwossen Amogne, Eyasu Makonnen, Eleni Aklillu, Lars Lindquist, Lawrence Yamuah, Beniyam Feleke, Abraham Aseffa
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001809
Abstract: Background To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1%) developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg. Conclusions/Significance Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002), concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008), and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001). Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.
Pharmacogenetic & Pharmacokinetic Biomarker for Efavirenz Based ARV and Rifampicin Based Anti-TB Drug Induced Liver Injury in TB-HIV Infected Patients
Getnet Yimer, Nobuhisa Ueda, Abiy Habtewold, Wondwossen Amogne, Akira Suda, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, Jürgen Burhenne, Getachew Aderaye, Lars Lindquist, Eyasu Makonnen, Eleni Aklillu
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027810
Abstract: Background Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI) in HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients. Methods and Findings Newly diagnosed treatment na?ve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353) were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001), higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009), efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036), baseline AST (p = 0.022), ALT (p = 0.014), lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008), and serum albumin (p = 0.007), NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039) and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001). Conclusion We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification of patients at risk of DILI.
Evaluation of Patterns of Liver Toxicity in Patients on Antiretroviral and Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs: A Prospective Four Arm Observational Study in Ethiopian Patients
Getnet Yimer, Marcus Gry, Wondwossen Amogne, Eyasu Makonnen, Abiy Habtewold, Zelalem Petros, Getachew Aderaye, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Lars Lindquist, Eleni Aklillu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094271
Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the incidence, type, severity and predictors of antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver injury (DILI). Methods A total of 1,060 treatment naive patients were prospectively enrolled into four treatment groups: HIV patients receiving efavirenz based HAART alone (Arm-1); TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4≤200 cells/μL, receiving concomitant rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based HAART (Arm-2); TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4>200 cells/μL, receiving anti-TB alone (Arm-3); TB patients taking rifampicin based anti-TB alone (Arm-4). Liver enzyme levels were monitored at baseline, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks during treatment. CD4 and HIV viral load was measured at baseline, 24th and 48th weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model. Results A total of 159 patients (15%) developed DILI with severity grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 of 53.5%, 32.7%, 11.3% and 2.5% respectively. The incidence of cholestatic, hepatocellular or mixed pattern was 61%, 15% and 24%, respectively. Incidence of DILI was highest in Arm-2 (24.2%)>Arm-3 (10.8%)>Arm-1 (8.8%)>Arm-4 (2.9%). Concomitant anti-TB-HIV therapy increased the risk of DILI by 10-fold than anti-TB alone (p<0.0001). HIV co-infection increased the risk of anti-TB DILI by 4-fold (p = 0.004). HAART associated DILI was 3-fold higher than anti-TB alone, (p = 0.02). HAART was associated with cholestatic and grade 1 DILI whereas anti-TB therapy was associated with hepatocellular and grade ≥ 2. Treatment type, lower CD4, platelet, hemoglobin, higher serum AST and direct bilirubin levels at baseline were significant DILI predictors. There was no effect of DILI on immunologic recovery or virologic suppression rate of HAART. Conclusion HAART associated DILI is mainly cholestatic and mild whereas hepatocellular or mixed pattern with high severity grade is more common in anti-tuberculosis DILI. TB-HIV co-infection, disease severity and concomitant treatment exacerbates the risk of DILI.
Copy Number Variation of Fc Gamma Receptor Genes in HIV-Infected and HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infected Individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa
Lee R. Machado, Jennifer Bowdrey, Eliford Ngaimisi, Abiy Habtewold, Omary Minzi, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Wondwossen Amogne, Sabina Mugusi, Mohammed Janabi, Getachew Aderaye, Ferdinand Mugusi, Maria Viskaduraki, Eleni Aklillu, Edward J. Hollox
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078165
Abstract: AIDS, caused by the retrovirus HIV, remains the largest cause of morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa yet almost all genetic studies have focused on cohorts from Western countries. HIV shows high co-morbidity with tuberculosis (TB), as HIV stimulates the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB). Recent clinical trials suggest that an effective anti-HIV response correlates with non-neutralising antibodies. Given that Fcγ receptors are critical in mediating the non-neutralising effects of antibodies, analysis of the extensive variation at Fcγ receptor genes is important. Single nucleotide variation and copy number variation (CNV) of Fcγ receptor genes affects the expression profile, activatory/inhibitory balance, and IgG affinity of the Fcγ receptor repertoire of each individual. In this study we investigated whether CNV of FCGR2C, FCGR3A and FCGR3B as well as the HNA1 allotype of FCGR3B is associated with HIV load, response to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and co-infection with TB. We confirmed an effect of TB-co-infection status on HIV load and response to HAART, but no conclusive effect of the genetic variants we tested. We observed a small effect, in Ethiopians, of FCGR3B copy number, where deletion was more frequent in HIV-TB co-infected patients than those infected with HIV alone.
Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-Group Prospective Cohort Study in Two Sub-Saharan Africa Populations
Eliford Ngaimisi, Abiy Habtewold, Omary Minzi, Eyasu Makonnen, Sabina Mugusi, Wondwossen Amogne, Getnet Yimer, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, Mohammed Janabi, Getachew Aderaye, Ferdinand Mugusi, Leif Bertilsson, Eleni Aklillu, Juergen Burhenne
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067946
Abstract: Objectives We evaluated the importance of ethnicity and pharmacogenetic variations in determining efavirenz pharmacokinetics, auto-induction and immunological outcomes in two African populations. Methods ART na?ve HIV patients from Ethiopia (n = 285) and Tanzania (n = 209) were prospectively enrolled in parallel to start efavirenz based HAART. CD4+ cell counts were determined at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma and intracellular efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefvairenz concentrations were determined at week 4 and 16. Genotyping for common functional CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 variant alleles were done. Result Patient country, CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G (rs3842A>G) genotype were significant predictors of plasma and intracellular efavirenz concentration. CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G (rs3842) genotype were significantly associated with higher plasma efavirenz concentration and their allele frequencies were significantly higher in Tanzanians than Ethiopians. Tanzanians displayed significantly higher efavirenz plasma concentration at week 4 (p<0.0002) and week 16 (p = 0.006) compared to Ethiopians. Efavirenz plasma concentrations remained significantly higher in Tanzanians even after controlling for the effect of CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G genotype. Within country analyses indicated a significant decrease in the mean plasma efavirenz concentration by week 16 compared to week 4 in Tanzanians (p = 0.006), whereas no significant differences in plasma concentration over time was observed in Ethiopians (p = 0.84). Intracellular efavirenz concentration and patient country were significant predictors of CD4 gain during HAART. Conclusion We report substantial differences in efavirenz pharmacokinetics, extent of auto-induction and immunologic recovery between Ethiopian and Tanzanian HIV patients, partly but not solely, due to pharmacogenetic variations. The observed inter-ethnic variations in efavirenz plasma exposure may possibly result in varying clinical treatment outcome or adverse event profiles between populations.
Bauxit
. W.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1951,
Abstract:
Creation of High Energy/Intensity Bremsstrahlung by a Multi-Target and Focusing of the Scattered Electrons by Small-Angle Backscatter at a Cone Wall and a Magnetic Field—Enhancement of the Outcome of Linear Accelerators in Radiotherapy  [PDF]
W. Ulmer
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.24020
Abstract: The yield of bremsstrahlung (BS) from collisions of fast electrons (energy at least 6 MeV) with a Tungsten target can be significantly improved by exploitation of Tungsten wall scatter in a multi-layered target. A simplified version of a previously developed principle is also able to focus on small angle scattered electrons by a Tungsten wall. It is necessary that the thickness of each Tungsten layer does not exceed 0.04 mm—a thickness of 0.03 mm is suitable for accelerators in medical physics. Further focusing of electrons results from suitable magnetic fields with field strength between 0.5 Tesla and 1.2 Tesla (if the cone with multi-layered targets is rather narrow). Linear accelerators in radiation therapy only need to be focused by wall scatter without further magnetic fields (a standard case: 31 plates with 0.03 mm thickness and 1 mm distance between the plates). We considered three cases with importance in medical physics: A very small cone with an additional magnetic field for focusing (the field diameter at 90 cm depth: 6 cm), a medium cone with an optional magnetic field (field diameter at 90 cm depth: 13 cm) and a broad cone without a magnetic field (
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