Abstract:
For healthcare professionals who treat individuals with osteoporosis, it is vital that they receive adequate education on osteoporosis to ensure sufficient knowledge of osteoporosis to properly treat individuals with the disease. To test for adequate osteoporosis education, a study was conducted to measure osteoporosis knowledge in 206 students in relevant healthcare academic programs, such as nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and dietetics. The study showed that differences existed in osteoporosis knowledge in general between the programs and between different years of students in the same programs. There were also discrepancies in specific areas of osteoporosis knowledge between the classes of students, and the average scores of correctly answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3%) out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge. This study shows that students have osteoporosis knowledge and that it is not completely inadequate; however, osteoporosis knowledge could still be more sufficient, and results demonstrate the need to increase osteoporosis education in the curriculum for these healthcare academic programs to increase osteoporosis knowledge and better prepare graduates and professionals to treat individuals with the disease.

Abstract:
For healthcare professionals who treat individuals with osteoporosis, it is vital that they receive adequate education on osteoporosis to ensure sufficient knowledge of osteoporosis to properly treat individuals with the disease. To test for adequate osteoporosis education, a study was conducted to measure osteoporosis knowledge in 206 students in relevant healthcare academic programs, such as nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and dietetics. The study showed that differences existed in osteoporosis knowledge in general between the programs and between different years of students in the same programs. There were also discrepancies in specific areas of osteoporosis knowledge between the classes of students, and the average scores of correctly answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3%) out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge. This study shows that students have osteoporosis knowledge and that it is not completely inadequate; however, osteoporosis knowledge could still be more sufficient, and results demonstrate the need to increase osteoporosis education in the curriculum for these healthcare academic programs to increase osteoporosis knowledge and better prepare graduates and professionals to treat individuals with the disease. 1. Introduction Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) that is diagnosed as 2.5 standard deviations below the adult peak mean that compromises bone strength resulting in an increased risk of bone fracture [1]. Osteoporosis affects about 10 million Americans with additional tens of millions at risk in the United States [2], and also affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide [3]. Reduced BMD due to osteoporosis leads to an increase in bone fractures that occur most frequently fractures in the hip, spine, and wrist, and these osteoporotic fractures reduce both the quality of life [4] and quantity of life [5]. In addition, treating individuals with osteoporosis costs billions of dollars per year on the nation’s healthcare system [6] that is expected to continuously and greatly increase in the next couple of decades [7]. With the increased prevalence of osteoporosis, it is vital for healthcare professionals who work with individuals with osteoporosis to be adequately educated to have proficient knowledge of the disease and how to prevent and treat it. Healthcare professionals should receive adequate osteoporosis education in their academic programs in order to give them adequate knowledge of the disease to prepare them for treating this population. A systematic review of interventions

Abstract:
Let $M_n$ be a random matrix of size $n\times n$ and let $\lambda_1,...,\lambda_n$ be the eigenvalues of $M_n$. The empirical spectral distribution $\mu_{M_n}$ of $M_n$ is defined as $$\mu_{M_n}(s,t)=\frac{1}{n}# \{k\le n, \Re(\lambda_k)\le s; \Im(\lambda_k)\le t\}.$$ The circular law theorem in random matrix theory asserts that if the entries of $M_n$ are i.i.d. copies of a random variable with mean zero and variance $\sigma^2$, then the empirical spectral distribution of the normalized matrix $\frac{1}{\sigma\sqrt{n}}M_n$ of $M_n$ converges almost surely to the uniform distribution $\mu_\cir$ over the unit disk as $n$ tends to infinity. In this paper we show that the empirical spectral distribution of the normalized matrix of $M_n$, a random matrix whose rows are independent random $(-1,1)$ vectors of given row-sum $s$ with some fixed integer $s$ satisfying $|s|\le (1-o(1))n$, also obeys the circular law. The key ingredient is a new polynomial estimate on the least singular value of $M_n$.

Abstract:
Let $A_n$ be an $n$ by $n$ random matrix whose entries are independent real random variables with mean zero, variance one and with subexponential tail. We show that the logarithm of $|\det A_n|$ satisfies a central limit theorem. More precisely, \begin{eqnarray*}\sup_{x\in {\mathbf {R}}}\biggl|{\mathbf {P}}\biggl(\frac{\log(|\det A_n|)-({1}/{2})\log (n-1)!}{\sqrt{({1}/{2})\log n}}\le x\biggr)-{\mathbf {P}}\bigl(\mathbf {N}(0,1)\le x\bigr)\biggr|\\\qquad\le\log^{-{1}/{3}+o(1)}n.\end{eqnarray*}

Abstract:
A sequence $A$ of elements an additive group $G$ is {\it incomplete} if there exists a group element that {\it can not} be expressed as a sum of elements from $A$. The study of incomplete sequences is a popular topic in combinatorial number theory. However, the structure of incomplete sequences is still far from being understood, even in basic groups. The main goal of this paper is to give a characterization of incomplete sequences in the vector space $F_p^d$, where $d$ is a fixed integer and $p$ is a large prime. As an application, we give a new proof for a recent result by Gao-Ruzsa-Thangadurai on the Olson's constant of $\F_p^2$ and partially answer their conjecture concerning $F_p^3$.

Abstract:
Let $\xi$ be a real random variable with mean zero and variance one and $A={a_1,...,a_n}$ be a multi-set in $\R^d$. The random sum $$S_A := a_1 \xi_1 + ... + a_n \xi_n $$ where $\xi_i$ are iid copies of $\xi$ is of fundamental importance in probability and its applications. We discuss the small ball problem, the aim of which is to estimate the maximum probability that $S_A$ belongs to a ball with given small radius, following the discovery made by Littlewood-Offord and Erdos almost 70 years ago. We will mainly focus on recent developments that characterize the structure of those sets $A$ where the small ball probability is relatively large. Applications of these results include full solutions or significant progresses of many open problems in different areas.

Abstract:
Let $\BZ_p$ be the finite field of prime order $p$ and $A$ be a subset of $\BZ_p$. We prove several sharp results about the following two basic questions: (1) When can one represent zero as a sum of distinct elements of $A$ ? (2) When can one represent every element of $\BZ_p$ as a sum of distinct elements of $A$ ?

Abstract:
Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided. 1. Introduction Osteoporosis is a severe disease that reduces both the quality [1] and quantity [2] of life. The disease is characterized as having decreased bone strength leading to increased fracture risk, and it is clinically diagnosed as having bone mineral density (BMD) 2.5 standard deviations below the adult peak mean [3]. The disease increases morbidity and mortality, and it affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide [4]. While osteoporosis can happen to anyone of either gender, women have higher rates of prevalence for the disease, especially women of Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, and some women may be at even higher risk of osteoporosis due to the female athlete triad. The female athlete triad (Triad) is a syndrome that is an interrelationship between (1) low energy availability, (2) irregular menstrual cycles, and (3) osteoporosis [5]. Low energy availability can result from eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, in which calorie consumption is limited or purged, respectively. Irregular menstrual cycles can result in amenorrhea, which is an absence of menstrual cycles for at least three months. Women having the conditions of eating disorders and/or amenorrhea can have reduced BMD that

Abstract:
Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%). Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH) to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years. 1. Introduction As the end of May 2012, Vietnam had 171,000 registered drug users, in which 85% is Heroine users [1]. Drug use prevention and treatment has been a top priority of the Party and Government. Both supply and demand reduction programs have yielded the encouraging results. However, the achievements are just the first step, and there are many shortcomings and problems ahead. The relapse rate and number of drug-related crimes remain high. Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through drug injection [2]. The prevalence of HIV among injecting-drug users is 20% and cases attributable to drug injection account for 60%. The current rate of HIV in IDUs has reduced but remained high in some localities, namely, Dien Bien (56%), Quang Ninh (56%), Hai Phong (48%) and Ho Chi Minh (46%), Dong Nai and Nghe An (24%), Hanoi (21%), and Lao Cai (22%) [3]. Methadone has been proved as an effective medication for opioid dependence [4]. Methadone together with psychosocial therapies and support of the family and community has helped improve the health of drug users, reduce the crimes and rate of HIV transmission and other blood-borne diseases [5]. The guidance for implementation of the Law on HIV/AIDS stipulates Methadone is one of the measures to prevent HIV

Abstract:
The result of the study contributes to enhancing and sustaining future livelihoods and food security in Vietnam vis-a-vis climate change. An innovative strategy based on marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) was used to transform popular rice variety AS996 into the one can tolerate submergence while maintaining its original characteristics preferred by farmers and consumers. The submergence tolerance QTL SUB1 counts for up to 70% of the submergence tolerant and provides a marked improvement of submergence tolerance in all genetic backgrounds and environments tested so far. Parental diversity was carried out with 460 markers. Of which, 53 polymorphic markers were used for assessment on BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1 generations. The best BC1F1 plant was P422 with highest recipient allele was 87.5%, while the additional chosen plants were P412, P428, P215 and P39 (81% - 84%). All these plants were used to develop BC2F1 generation. The six BC2F1 plants were used to develop BC3F1 and BC2F2 were the plants number P422-11 and P422-14 having 93.75% recipient alleles and P422-12, P422-3, P39-17, P39-25 having 92.25% recipient alleles. Total of 445 BC3F1 plants were confirmed the introgresion of SUB1 using ART5 and SC3. After three generations of backcrossing, application of MABC resulted in the best BC3F1 individual P422-14-177 with 100% of recipient alleles based on the number of 53 markers used with only the introgression size of SUB1 was 0.3Mb between ART5 and SC3. Phenotyping was carried out on BC3F1 and BC2F2 of the selected lines. The survival ratio of these selected lines and IR64SUB1 were the same. It convinced the successfully introgress SUB1 into AS996 rice variety. The breeding line BC4F1 having 100% genetic background of donor variety is ready for develop new submergence tolerant rice variety ASS996-SUB1 to cope with climate change.