Abstract:
Porous Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are of particular interest for many industrial applications, as they combine intrinsic SMA (shape memory effect and superelasticity) and foam characteristics. The computational cost of direct porous material modeling is however extremely high, and so designing porous SMA structure poses a considerable challenge. In this study, an attempt is made to simulate the superelastic behavior of porous materials via the modeling of fully dense structures with material properties modified using a porous/bulk density ratio scaling relation. Using this approach, direct modeling of the porous microstructure is avoided, and only the macroscale response of the model is considered which contributes to a drastic reduction of the computational cost. Foam structures with a gradient of porosity are also studied, and the prediction made using the fully dense material model is shown to be in agreement with the mesoscale porous material model. 1. Introduction Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) exhibit unusual mechanical properties such as shape memory and superelasticity, which make them very attractive for a wide range of industrial applications, from aerospace to medicine [1, 2]. For more than a decade, not only fully dense but also porous or foamed forms of SMA have been studied because of their additional benefits: low density, high permeability, and energy dissipation properties [3]. The level of foam porosity is selected as a function of the final use of a material while structural applications of porous SMA require low-to-medium porosity foams (pore volume fraction (PVF) ≤ 40%); biomedical applications, such as bone implants [4], need highly porous material with PVF of up to 70%. The properties of porous SMAs are strongly dependent on their porous microstructure, whose length scale is much smaller than that associated with the macroscale response of the whole material. From a numerical point of view, modeling this micro/macro behavior has a tremendous numerical cost. To alleviate the complexity of the micro/macroapproach, that is, the explicit representation of the porous microstructure, researchers have chosen different routes, such as micromechanical averaging techniques [6, 7] or Unit Cell approach [8, 9]. However, those strategies are based on assumptions (low porosity, regular pore distribution, spherically shaped pores, etc.) that are not fully compatible with the biomedical application foams [5] that we are studying in the present paper. To overcome the micro/macro numerical cost while reconciling the needs of biomedical foams, we have

Abstract:
The granular structure of space, the nature of virtual particles and the unity of physical interactions are under study. The mass of an elementary cell in the Universe is determined, as a whole, with the physical meaning of the renormalization procedure changing in this case.

Abstract:
Two and a half thousand years ago the ancient atomists made a suggestion that space has a cellular structure, is material and consists of elementary cells. In 1900 Plank found the elementary length L*=10-33 cm. This notion has been widely used in modern physics ever since. The properties of granular space are studied in this article on the assumption that a three-dimensional material cell with the size of Planck’s elementary length is the only material for the construction of the whole Universe. This approach allows one to account for such mysterious phenomena as inertia, ultimate velocity of transfer of material body interactions and huge difference between gravitational and Coulomb forces - the so called “Large Numbers Problem”, as well essence of electric charge and Pauli exclusions principle.

Abstract:
In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered thermal radiation with T0 ~ 2.7 K further on called “relict”. This article is concerned with the new phenomenon, i.e. the formation of gravitational energy levels by any body, with the result that photons are produced whose spectrum close to the Earth is similar to that of a blackbody with T0 ~ 2.7 K. The critical analysis of the experiments performed with the cosmic observatories COBE and WMAP completely confirms this prediction.

Abstract:
The translational motion of a large polaron as whole is analyzed in the context of its effect on the broadening of an absorption optical spectrum. It was open question how important the role of translational degrees of freedom and the corresponding velocities are on the broadening. The Bogolyubov method of canonical transformation of coordinates is formulated for a system of an electron and field, taking into account rigorous fulfillment of the conservation laws. Separation of variables is carried out for the coordinates describing the translational degrees of freedom and the electron oscillations in a polarization well. The equations obtained for the electronic states explicitly depend on the velocity of the free polaron as a whole. An estimate is made for free polaron in ammonia.

Abstract:
In the present work a possibility of computation modeling, which should be realized in a real quantum computer, is discussed. In this connection two models of a device, which work is determined by the structure and dynamics of real molecular systems are reported.

Abstract:
An investigation into real structure of space allows solving in a new way the problem of stability of atom: an electron on the ground level is a rest. The absolute causality of all the phenomena in the Universe is substantiated. Heisenberg inequalities make some sense only when it is impossible to conjugated physical values. The work is concern with the mystery of interference and hyroscope.

Abstract:
The investigations into the structure of the gravitation field formed by stars, galaxies and their clusters have allowed an alternative explanation for the effect of red shift in stellar spectra; they also have “stopped” the expansion of the Universe and disregarded “dark” energy (DE). The characteristic features of the structure of gravitational field for large galaxies give a clear indication of the mysterious “dark” matter (DM) which enables eliminating it in the Universe. And, finally, the theory of granular space may prove the existence of the Universe as a unique one.

The model of dark matter is presented where the dark matter is a classical gauge field. A spherical symmetric solution of Yang-Mills equation is obtained. The asymptotic behavior of the gauge fields and matter density is investigated. It is shown that the distribution of the matter density allows us interpret it as the dark matter. The fitting of a typical rotational curve with the rotational curve created by the spherical solution of SU(3) Yang-Mills equation is made

The vacuum component of the
Universe is investigated in both the quantum and the classical regimes of its
evolution. The associated vacuum energy density was reduced by more than 78
orders of magnitude in 10^{-6} sec in the quantum regime and by nearly
45 orders of magnitude in 4×10^{17} sec in the classical regime. The
vacuum energy was spent for the organization of new microstates during the
expansion of the Universe. In the quantum regime, phase transitions were more
effective in reducing the vacuum energy than in producing new microstates. Both
of these phenomena have been recorded in the history of the Universe. Herein,
the need for the evolution of the Universe’s vacuum component is discussed.
Indeed, through this evolution, all 123 crisis orders of dark energy are
reduced by conventional physical processes. A table of the vacuum energy’s
evolution as the function of red shift and a short discussion about vacuum
stability are presented.