Abstract:
The paper investigates the determinants of investments in Tunisia using annual data over the period of 1961-2011. The importance of this study comes from the necessity to determine important factors influencing domestic investments in Tunisia. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base and trade openness on domestic investments. Our results reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between investments and monetary base, the influence of the others is insignificant or rather ambiguous.

Abstract:
The experiment engaging 50 participants was performed to model and identify the determinants of the players’ risky behavior. Here, a questionnaire and a bimatrix game containing the negative/zero payoffs were used to identify the players’ motives to play risky strategies. Besides the concrete form of the payoffs, the individual risk attitudes were also proved to be statistically significant for risky behavior of the players.

Abstract:
Moral hazard can be found almost in all fields of human activities. Moral hazard is a change of economic agent ′s behaviour when circumstances change. Theoretical background of moral hazard issue in economics dates back to 1970s. Recognition of moral hazard started by published studies of Pauly (Pauly 1968), Zeckhauser (Zeckhauser 1970), Arrow (Arrow 1971) and Mirrlees (Mirrlees 1999). Current situation of the global economy (fall 2011) was caused largely by moral hazard executed by authorities such as governments, institutions, ranking agencies, banks, chief executive officers, politicians etc. Efforts to stabilise Eurozone, governments bail-outs to banks, governments purchases of toxic assets, rescue packages given to the bank sector and big companies, which are a€ too big to faila€ , rescue packages given to debtor nations, golden parachutes given to employees which are leaving companies are nothing but the manifestations of moral hazard in economic and politic reality. This paper uses an economic experiment with 96 subjects to examine the tendencies of economic agents towards moral hazard. Design of the experiment allowed simulating third partya€ s intervention on a market (e.g. state funding accelerating purchase, health care insurance function on the market with health care). Obtained data are statistically evaluated and it is shown, that economic agents incline to moral hazard in case, when it is possible. Study shows how rational agents became less rational in terms of average market price, after intervention of a third party on the market. Third party intervention raises the average market prices presenting a manifestation of moral hazard. It is shown, that under given assumptions, even rational economic agents diverge from rational and market efficient strategies and behave irresponsibly. Despite generally negative attitude towards moral hazard, it is shown that economic agents have tendencies to behave in such a manner. During experiment we observed robust deviation in equilibrium market price before and after the third party intervention.

Abstract:
Reflection effect“ means, that people are risk averse if dealing with profits and risk seeking by challenging losses (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979). The aim of the paper is to find out whether the decisions of the experiment participants differ when dealing with positive and negative prospects by choosing a preferred lottery. Standardized scale (DOSPERT) evaluating the participant willingness to take risk in different domains of life is also considered. An econometric model for predictions of the paired lottery game results depending on the risk characteristics identified within DOSPERT is estimated in the paper.

Entropy represents
a universal concept in science suitable for quantifying the uncertainty of a series of random events. We define and describe this notion in an appropriate
manner for physicists. We start with a brief recapitulation of the basic
concept of the theory probability being useful for the determination of the
concept of entropy. The history of how this concept came into its to-day exact
form is sketched. We show that the Shannon entropy represents the most adequate
measure of the probabilistic uncertainty of a random object. Though the notion
of entropy has been introduced in classical thermodynamics as a thermodynamic
state variable it relies on concepts studied in the theory of probability and
mathematical statistics. We point out that whole formalisms of statistical
mechanics can be rewritten in terms of Shannon entropy. The notion “entropy” is
differently understood in various science disciplines: in classical physics
it represents the thermodynamical state variable; in communication theory it
represents the efficiency of transmission of communication; in the theory of
general systems the magnitude of the configurational order; in ecology the
measure for bio-diversity; in statistics the degree of disorder, etc. All these
notions can be mapped on the general mathematical concept of entropy. By means
of entropy, the configurational order of complex systems can be exactly
quantified. Besides the Shannon entropy, there exists a class of Shannon-like
entropies which converge, under certain circumstances, toward Shannon
entropy. The Shannon-like entropy is sometimes easier to handle mathematically
then Shannon entropy. One of the important Shannon-like entropy is well-known
Tsallis entropy. The application of the Shannon and Shannon-like entropies in
science is really versatile. Besides the mentioned statistical physics, they
play a fundamental role in the quantum information, communication theory, in the
description of disorder, etc.

The decommissioning of nuclear power plants
is in the Slovak Republic an actual issue. In 2015 started the second decommissioning
stage of nuclear power plant V1 in Jaslovské Bohunice. This stage involves the
dismantling and segmentation of activated (reactor pressure vessel, reactor internals)
and contaminated parts (steam generators, pressurizer). From this reason it is
necessary to investigate the radiation situation in the vicinity of the
component to be cut. The presented results show that during remote dismantling
the exposure is small (compared with the fragmentation tasks). Moreover, when
the pre-dismantling decontamination with decontamination factor of 100 is
applied, the total collective effective dose is below the yearly limit of 20
mSv for workers.

In Slovakia, a direct disposal of spent
nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository within the country after a certain
period of interim storage is a preferred option. This paper briefly describes
near field model of radionuclide migration developed in GoldSim simulation code
environment and analyses the calculated results on time-dependent release rates
of safety relevant radionuclides. Given the fact that GoldSimalso enables to
perform probabilistic simulations using the Monte Carlo method, a probabilistic
approach was chosen to assess the influence of selected near field parameter uncertainties
related to radionuclide migration on the radionuclide release rates from the
bentonite buffer to the surrounding host rock. Based on the results, release
rates of nuclides which exceed their solubility limits are effectively lowered
and many of nuclides are significantly sorbed on the buffer material. It can be
seen that the variance of the total release rate in the case of solubility
uncertainty is almost two orders of magnitude within a long period of time.

Abstract:
Authors dedicate this article to impacts of constrains in paradigm of potentials forming our society.As entire societies are assembled in certain pattern, this article is dedicated to reasoning why economical growth builton influence and a use of knowledge of the reasons would accelerate consumer orientation of reproduction cycle on the levelof ownership.Both of these, causes and reasons, result in aggravation of social order and ecological crises.End products of globalization and concomitant state economic policies do not lead to crisis solution nor do they lead to effectivedisappearance of their consequences.

Abstract:
Attention in the article is focused to the modelling of processes structures and its utilisation with the initial stages of IS designing. Especially business process structures on high-level modelling are subjected that substantially support the company`s successful running. The essence of the contribution is the application of the process clustering by object-oriented classification to the modelling of stationary business processes.

Abstract:
The paper is divided into three separate parts. The first part explores the theoretical aspects of the personality of the mathematics teacher as well as therequirements placed such an agent in the educational process. The concluding passages of the first part emphasises selected elements of formalism in the work of the mathematics teacher. The second part of the paper analyses several types and forms of motivation towards mathematical activity in pupils. In addition to stressing the importance of individual abilities, it pays particular attention to the significance of motivation. The final part of the paper focuses on approaches to mathematical knowledge acquisition and knowledge introduction in schools,putting special emphasis on the following two approaches to introducing new mathematical terminology: the concrete-inductive method and the abstract-deductive method. For the sake of illustration, several examples applicable inprimary and secondary schools are included. In the concluding passages of the third part, the reader is reminded of two essential mistakes made in the course of learning mathematics, both of which are closely scruitinised by the theory of teaching mathematics. Written both to motivate and inspire, the paper presents a systematic discussion of selected issues juxtaposed with noteworthy claims byvarious personalities in the field. lánok tvoria tri asti. Prvá as priná a teoretické aspekty osobnosti u ite a matematiky a po iadavky kladené na tohto inite a eduka ného procesu. Záveromprvej asti sú akcentované typické znaky formalizmu v práci u ite a matematiky. Druhá as lánku analyzuje pojem, typy a formy motivácie matematickej innosti iakov. Zd raznená je d le itá úloha motivácie vo vykone loveka okrem jeho schopností. Posledná as príspevku si v íma technológie osvojovania a zavádzania novych matematickych poznatkov v kolskej matematike. Pod drobnoh adom sú dve cesty, resp. metódy zavádzania matematickych pojmov: konkrétno-induktívna metóda a abstraktno-deduktívna metóda. Na ilustráciu problematiky sú uvedené aj konkrétne príklady aplikovate né na základnej i strednej kole. Záverom tretej asti lánku pripomíname dva typy tzv. typickych chyb iakov vo vyu ovaní matematiky, ktoré ako peciálny fenomén skúma teória vyu ovanie matematiky. Celú problematiku umocňujú citáty vyzna nych osobností. lánok má mohutny motiva ny a stimula ny charakter.