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Cytologic picture of Castleman′s disease: A report of two cases
Sudha Ayyagari,Vivekanand Namala
Journal of Cytology , 2010,
Abstract: Castleman′s disease (CD), also called giant lymph nodal hyperplasia, is a lymphoproliferative disorder secondary to lymphoid follicle hyperplasia and marked capillary proliferation with endothelial hyperplasia. It presents as enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, neck, groin, axilla and other sites. On clinical examination as well as gross examination, this disease mimics lymphomas and tuberculosis. Since cytological appearances vary depending on the type and extent of hyperplasia, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings may not always be conclusive in all cases. We studied aspirates in two cases of CD, one of which presented with multiple enlarged axillary lymph nodes and the other with enlarged cervical lymph node. Cytology revealed reactive lymphadenitis with hyalinized capillaries and other features. Lymph node excision in both cases confirmed the diagnosis.
The Legislative Push to Mandate Rules-Based Monetary Policymaking in the US: The Latest Salvo in the Long-Running “Rules versus Discretion” Debate  [PDF]
Vivekanand Jayakumar
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.66122
Abstract: US Congressional leaders have recently proposed legislation aimed at forcing the Federal Reserve to implement an instrument rule based monetary policy regime. The avowed rationale is to increase transparency and reduce uncertainty associated with monetary policymaking, and to impose constraints on the US central bank. The proposed legislation would require the Federal Reserve to adopt an interest rate setting rule, preferably a rule based on the standard Taylor Rule. This article examines the theoretical rationale for considering monetary policy rules and provides a critique of the move to legislate the adoption of interest rate setting rules in the US. Specifically, the challenges that the Federal Reserve would encounter if it were required to follow an instrument rule, and the shortcomings of any monetary regime based on the standard Taylor Rule, are detailed in this study. This article also considers the merits of basing a monetary policy regime on a targeting rule instead of an instrument rule, and argues that US policymakers would be better served if they shift their focus towards establishing a clearly defined nominal GDP targeting rule and abandon their efforts to impose operational constraints on the Federal Reserve.
UK Current Account Sustainability in the Post-Brexit Era: Insights from an Intertemporal Current Account Framework  [PDF]
Vivekanand Jayakumar
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.72020
Abstract: British voters decided in a June 2016 referendum that they wanted the UK to leave the European Union (EU). The Brexit referendum result represents a critical turning point for the UK and the EU alike, and the decision to exit the bloc is bound to have far-reaching consequences. UK’s persistent current account deficits and its outsized external assets and external liabilities reflect Britain’s deep economic and financial integration with the European Single Market System, and highlight London’s central role as Europe’s financial capital. Unraveling of the symbiotic relationship between the UK and the EU will profoundly impact Britain’s ability to entice foreign investors to fund its current account deficits. Using a rich intertemporal current account framework that incorporates valuation effects, this study examines the potential impact of Brexit on UK’s current account sustainability and on UK’s net foreign debt position. It argues that a “hard Brexit” outcome would imperil UK’s ability to sustain current account deficits. UK’s role as a gateway for non-EU states looking to invest inside EU, and the benefits enjoyed by UK-based financial institutions from the European financial passport system would both be endangered if UK is shutout of the European Single Market system. UK is bound to become far less attractive to foreign investors in such a scenario, and a rapid and painful current account deficit reduction is probable. On the other hand, the study shows that a “soft Brexit” outcome in conjunction with a sustained and orderly depreciation of the pound would actually improve UK’s current account balance and its net foreign debt position.
Pressure Sensor Based on Mechanically Induced LPFG in Novel MSM Fiber Structure  [PDF]
Sunita Ugale, Vivekanand Mishra
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.33036

We have proposed and demonstrated experimentally a novel and simple pressure sensor based on mechanically induced long period optical fiber gratings. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the characterization of mechanically induced long period fiber gratings in novel multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structure. The MLPFG induced in single mode fiber and multimode fibers are studied separately and the results are compared with MLPFG induced in MSM fiber structure. MLPFG in MSM structure has much greater sensitivity. We have obtained maximum transmission loss peak of around 18 dB, and the sensitivity of pressure sensor is 8 dB/Kg.

Performance Evaluation of Spectrum Detection in Cognitive Radio Network  [PDF]
Shubhangi Mahamuni, Vivekanand Mishra
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.711049
Abstract: In mobility management, detection of spectrum hole plays very important role for doing spectrum handoff mechanism. Operation of the cognitive radio depends on the spectrum sensing which is the most important task in case of cognitive radio network. Detection of spectrum holes (underutilized sub-bands of the radio spectrum) estimates average power, throughput and utilized time for each spectrum hole. But in case of reactive spectrum handoff mechanism, spectrum handoff delay becomes tedious task. So in order to make spectrum handoff mechanism efficient our scheme proposed spectrum handoff mechanism with negligible spectrum handoff delay. In this paper we had real time experimental setup with the spectrum handoff mechanism. We investigate algorithm for spectrum handoff mechanism which strongly minimizes spectrum handoff delay of cognitive radio network using spectrum detection method for sensing spectrum holes.
Time-scales of Radio Emission in PSR J0437-4715 at 327 MHz
M. Vivekanand
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317141
Abstract: Time-scales of radio emission are studied in PSR J0437-4715 at 327 MHz using almost half a million periods of high quality data from Ooty Radio Telescope. The radio emission in this milli second pulsar occurs on a short (s) time-scale of approximately 0.026 +- 0.001 periods, and on a (l) time-scale that is much longer than the widths of the components of the integrated profile (approximately 0.05 periods). The width of the s emission increases with its increasing relative contribution to the total radio emission. This may provide constraints for the details of discharge of vacuum gaps above pulsar polar caps. The s emission occasionally takes place in the form of intense spikes, which are confined to the main component of the integrated profile for 90 per cent of the time. The positions of spikes within a component of the integrated profile have no simple relation to the shape of that component. This may have impact on the interpretation of the integrated profile components in terms of independent regions of emission on the polar cap.
A review of x-ray spectral evolution in Crab pulsar
M. Vivekanand
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020919
Abstract: Pravdo et al (1997) claimed that the phase resolved x-ray spectrum in Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21) shows a spectral hardening at the leading edge of the first peak of its integrated profile; this was a new and unexpected result. This article reanalyzes their data, as well as some other related data, and argues that the spectrum is as likely to be unvarying (i.e., neither hardening nor softening).
RXTE observations of single pulses of PSR B0531+21 I: Flux variations
M. Vivekanand
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010618
Abstract: This article is the first in the series that analyze about 1.87 million periods of PSR B0531+21 (Crab pulsar), observed by the PCA detector aboard the RXTE x-ray observatory. The Crab pulsar's x-ray light curve shows little variation over time scales ranging from days to a period (33.46 milli seconds). The standard deviation of its x-ray flux variation is $\approx$ 0.7% of its mean value, which is negligible compared to its radio flux variations. The phase resolved power spectrum of pulse to pulse x-ray flux variation shows no spectral feature; an upper limit to the peak of any possible broad spectral feature is 0.06% of the mean power. The x-ray fluxes in the two components of its integrated profile are unrelated to each other; their linear correlation coefficient is 0.0004$\pm$0.0010. ``Giant pulses'' that are routinely seen at radio wavelengths are absent here. This work sets very strong constraints on the connection (if any) between the flux variations at radio and x-ray energies, for example due to variation in the degree of coherence of the basic emitters. Its phase resolved x-ray flux variation shows a weak correlation with the integrated profile. If confirmed, this might be an important clue to understanding the x-ray emission mechanism of Crab pulsar.
No Evidence for Coherent Diffractive Radiation Patterns in the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0437-4715
M. Vivekanand
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04571.x
Abstract: An independent analysis of the 326.5 MHz data obtained by Ooty Radio Telescope reveals no evidence for coherent diffractive radiation patterns in the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715.
RXTE/HEXTE Analysis of the Crab Pulsar Glitch of July 2000
M. Vivekanand
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Hard xray data from the RXTE observatory (HEXTE energy range 15 to 240 keV) have been analyzed to obtain a phase coherent timing solution for the Crab pulsar glitch of 15 July 2000. The results are: (1) step change in the rotation frequency $\nu_0$ of the Crab pulsar at the epoch of the glitch is $\Delta \nu_0 = (30 \pm 3) \times 10^{-9} \times \nu_0$, (2) step change in its time derivative is $\Delta \dot \nu_0 = (4.8 \pm 0.6) \times 10^{-3} \times \dot \nu_0$, and (3) the time scale of decay of the the step change is $\tau_d = 4.7 \pm 0.5$ days. The first two results are consistent with those obtained at radio frequencies by the Jodrell Bank observatory. The last result has not been quoted in the literature, but could be an underestimate due to lack of observations very close to the glitch epoch. By comparing with the monthly timing ephemeris published by the Jodrell group for the Crab pulsar, the time delay between the main peaks of the hard xray and radio pulse profiles is estimated to be $+411 \pm 167$ $\mu$sec. Although this number is not very significant, it is consistent with the number derived for the 2 to 16 keV energy range, using the PCA instrument of RXTE. The separation between the two peaks of the integrated pulse profile of the Crab pulsar, and the ratio of their intensities, both are statistically similar before and after the glitch. The dead time corrected integrated photon flux within the integrated pulse profile appears to decrease after the glitch, although this is not a statistically strong result. This work achieves what can be considered to be almost absolute timing analysis of the Crab pulsar hard xray data.
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