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Control territorial a través de puestos de observación y peaje en el Camino del Inca. Tramo Morohuasi - Incahuasi, Salta-Argentina
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy , 2003,
Abstract: over the mountainous country located east of the quebrada del toro (bull's gorge), district of rosario de lerma, salta, an important path of the incan road is found, which was quoted by eric boman in the early 20th century. along approximately 70 km of road which includes the morohuasi- incahuasi path, we believe a complete sequence of sites associated to the road have been discovered, that holds a continuity, practically uninterrupted and scarce deterioration of anthropic origin. on the path we registered a total of twenty five new archaeological sites and structures, with direct and indirect relationship to the road, proposing two types of morphological sites, on which we did not find information in the bibliography consulted. this distribution suggests a section controlled by the inca state. these sites are located on the incan road, on the borders or on the nearby slopes. the amount of these observation points and tolls, located along almost 70 km of the studied road, suggest a sector highly controlled by the inca state. given the productive significance of the territory and its direct association with archaeological sites of the late and inca periods, possibly with a high density of population or administrative importance, the present research opens a new panorama for the meaning and integration of the data and research on a regional scale.
Propuesta metodológica para el registro de caminos con componentes Inkas
Christian Vitry
Andes , 2004,
Abstract: Muchas veces la identificación y registro de caminos inkaicos resulta difícil de realizar. Esto se debe a numerosos factores entre los que podemos mencionar los escasos estudios arquitectónicos y constructivos específicos de caminos preinkas, inkas, y coloniales que ayuden a diferenciarlos entre sí, también, las dificultades de acceso que presentan muchos de ellos, así como la falta de difusión de algunas investigaciones generadas en los países andinos. Sobre la base del trabajo de campo sistemático realizado en los últimos nueve a os en diferentes paisajes del antiguo Kollasuyu, desde el altiplano a la selva y desde los bordes de la llanura hasta monta as superiores a 6.000 metros de altura, en el marco de diferentes proyectos del Consejo de Investigación de la Universidad Nacional de Salta y otras instituciones, intentamos describir los rasgos arquitectónicos y constructivos que los Inkas utilizaron con mayor frecuencia para la construcción de caminos y estructuras asociadas a los mismos. En esta comunicación ponemos a consideración una propuesta metodológica para el registro de caminos con componentes Inkas, a través de fichas guía y una síntesis explicativa, con la finalidad de sistematizar la información y facilitar su identificación y registro en el campo
Sistema de asentamiento prehispánico en la Sierra Meridional de Cha?i (Salta, Argentina)
Vitry,Christian; Soria,Silvia S;
Andes , 2007,
Abstract: the area of research is located in the southern area of the cha?i mountain, salta province, argentina. the spatial and distributional structure of the archaeological sites and nearby mountain ranges has a great potential for research. these attributes, both qualitative and quantitative, allow the study of the variability and complexity of the settlement system in the region. our perspective is based in the evolution of the cultural landscape and the process of geopolitical change. the archaeological record reveals a recurrence in the settlement system, and we proposed a hypothetical model for the occupation of space in the regional development and inka periods. in this paper, different forms of power and possible emergent situations of social inequality are analyzed during these periods.
Sistema de asentamiento prehispánico en la sierra meridional de Cha i (Salta, Argentina)
Christian Vitry,Silvia S. Soria
Andes , 2007,
Abstract: El área de investigación se ubica en el sector meridional de la Sierra de Cha i, Provincia de Salta, República Argentina. La estructura espacial y distribucional de los sitios arqueológicos en el área de estudio y sistemas monta osos aleda os posee un gran potencial informativo. Estos atributos cualicuantitativos nos permiten estudiar la variabilidad y complejidad del sistema de asentamiento en la región. Nuestro abordaje parte desde las perspectivas de la evolución del paisaje cultural y el proceso de cambio geopolítico. El registro arqueológico presente en el área de estudio manifiesta una recurrencia con relación al sistema de asentamiento, para el cual proponemos un modelo hipotético de ocupación del espacio durante los períodos de Desarrollos Regionales e Inka. Durante estos períodos analizamos la interacción de las diferentes formas de poder y posibles situaciones emergentes de desigualdad social
Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review
Noordin Othman, Agnes Vitry, Elizabeth E. Roughead
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006350
Abstract: Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. Methods and Findings Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 – February 2006). Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims were unambiguous clinical claims. Most advertisements with quantitative information provided risk results as relative risk reduction. Studies were conducted in 26 countries only and then the generalizability of the results is limited. Conclusions Evidence from this review indicates that low quality of journal advertising is a global issue. As information provided in journal advertising has the potential to change doctors' prescribing behaviour, ongoing efforts to increase education about drug promotion are crucial. The results from our review suggest the need for a global pro-active and effective
Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-294
Abstract: A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries.Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P < 0.001). However, the unambiguous claims were supported by more references than other claims (80%). Most evidence was obtained from at least one randomized controlled trial, a systematic review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P < 0.001). Advertisements that provided quantitative information reported risk results exclusively as a relative risk reductionThe majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.Information on medicines is essential to help doctors ensure the safe and optimal use of medicines. Pharmaceutical advertisements in journal advertising are used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors [1]. Medicines information includes product characteristics, marketing claims and references to support claims. Evid
Quality and availability of consumer information on heart failure in Australia
Agnes I Vitry, Susan M Phillips, Susan J Semple
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-255
Abstract: The availability of consumer information was assessed through a questionnaire-based survey of the major organisations in Australia known, or thought, to be producing or using consumer materials on heart failure, including hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to explore issues around the use, production and dissemination of consumer materials. Only groups that had produced consumer information on heart failure were asked to complete the totality of the questionnaire.The quality of information booklets was assessed by using a standardised checklist.Of 101 organisations which were sent a questionnaire, 33 had produced 61 consumer resources on heart failure including 21 information booklets, 3 videos, 5 reminder fridge magnets, 7 websites, 15 self-management diaries and 10 self-management plans. Questionnaires were completed for 40 separate information resources. Most had been produced by hospitals or health services. Two information booklets had been translated into other languages. There were major gaps in the availability of these resources as more than half of the resources were developed in 2 of the 8 Australian states and territories, New South Wales and Victoria.Quality assessment of 19 information booklets showed that most had good presentation and language. Overall eight high quality booklets were identified. There were gaps in terms of topics covered, provision of references, quantitative information about treatment outcomes and quality and level of scientific evidence to support medical recommendations. In only one case was there evidence that consumers had been involved in the production of the booklets.Key findings arising from the study included the need to develop a nationally coordinated approach for increasing the dissemination of information resources on heart failure. While the more recent publication of a booklet by the National Heart Foundation may have improved the situation, dissemination of written information materials may remain sub-optima
Evidence of a cyclonic regime in a precessing cylindrical container
W. Mouhali,T. Lehner,J. Léorat,R. Vitry
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We report experimental observations obtained by particule image velocimetry (PIV) of the behavior of a flow driven by rotation and precession of a cylindrical container. Various hydrodynamical regimes are identified according to the value of the control parameter which is the ratio of the precession frequency to the rotation frequency. In particular when this parameter is increased from small values, we have observed an induced differential rotation followed by the apparition of permanent cyclonic vortices.
Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead, Shaiful B Ismail, Khairani Omar
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-743
Abstract: Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia.Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P < 0.001). In 48% of the Australian presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general practitioners.Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines infor
Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia
Gillian E Caughey, Agnes I Vitry, Andrew L Gilbert, Elizabeth E Roughead
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-221
Abstract: A systematic review of Australian studies (1996 – May 2007) was conducted. The review focused specifically on the chronic diseases included as national health priorities; arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus and mental health problems.A total of twenty five studies met our inclusion criteria. Over half of the elderly patients with arthritis also had hypertension, 20% had CVD, 14% diabetes and 12% mental health problem. Over 60% of patients with asthma reported arthritis as a comorbidity, 20% also had CVD and 16% diabetes. Of those with CVD, 60% also had arthritis, 20% diabetes and 10% had asthma or mental health problems.There are comparatively few Australian studies that focused on comorbidity associated with chronic disease. However, they do show high prevalence of comorbidity across national health priority areas. This suggests integration and co-ordination of the national health priority areas is critical. A greater awareness of the importance of managing a patients' overall health status within the context of comorbidity is needed together with, increased research on comorbidity to provide an appropriate scientific basis on which to build evidence based care guidelines for these multimorbid patients.The proportion of Australians aged 65 years and over is projected to increase from 2.6 million in 2004, to over 6.5 million by 2051, with the highest projected growth rate for those aged 80 years or older [1]. This ageing Australian population, with a concomitant rise in the number of people living with chronic diseases, has major implications for both health care services and their associated costs. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of illness and disability in those aged 65 years and over [2] and in 2000–01 accounted for nearly 70% of all health system expenditure in Australia (over $AU 35 billion) [3-5]. The World Health Organisation estimates that chronic disease accounts for 60% of deaths worldwide and has given preced
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