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Investigation of Surface Tryptophan of Protein by Selective Excitation at 305 nm  [PDF]
Vishvanath Tiwari, Monalisa Tiwari
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2015.63009
Abstract: Intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan is a powerful tool that is used to investigate structure, dynamics, and folding-unfolding of proteins. Here, we have signified the importance of selective monitoring of “surface” tryptophans from the “buried” tryptophans in a protein via selective excitation of surface tryptophan using light of 305 nm wavelength. We have also enlightened the effect of pH and temperature on the conformation of protein by selective excitation of surface tryptophan of protein using 305 nm light. The result concludes that this novel approach could be used to investigate surface tryptophan of protein selectively at diverse conditions.
Comparative Proteomics of Inner Membrane Fraction from Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with a Reference Strain
Vishvanath Tiwari, Jitendraa Vashistt, Arti Kapil, Rajeswari R. Moganty
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039451
Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii has been identified by the Infectious Diseases Society of America as one of the six pathogens that cause majority of hospital infections. Increased resistance of A. baumannii even to the latest generation of β-lactams like carbapenem is an immediate threat to mankind. As inner-membrane fraction plays a significant role in survival of A. baumannii, we investigated the inner-membrane fraction proteome of carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii using Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) followed by DeCyder, Progenesis and LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 19 over-expressed and 4 down-regulated proteins (fold change>2, p<0.05) in resistant strain as compared to reference strain. Some of the upregulated proteins in resistant strain and their association with carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii are: i) β-lactamases, AmpC and OXA-51: cleave and inactivate carbapenem ii) metabolic enzymes, ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase: help in increased energy production for the survival and iii) elongation factor Tu and ribosomal proteins: help in the overall protein production. Further, entry of carbapenem perhaps is limited by controlled production of OmpW and low levels of surface antigen help to evade host defence mechanism in developing resistance in A. baumannii. Present results support a model for the importance of proteins of inner-membrane fraction and their synergistic effect in the mediation of resistance of A. baumannii to carbapenem.
Nanomechanical Analysis of Hybrid Silicones and Hybrid Epoxy Coatings—A Brief Review  [PDF]
Atul Tiwari
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2012.21005
Abstract: This review article is written on the investigations of nanomechanical properties of coatings by using nanoindentation techniques. The focus is on the studies that were conducted on epoxy polymer, silicones and their hybrid materials. The article describes a large number of developmental studies that are conducted on coatings. Materials properties such as nanoindentation hardness, modulus, scratch, wear and viscoelastic behavior have been described. Moreover, the article summarizes various studies that mention the use of different nanoparticles in coating formulations that could improve the mechanical strength and service life span of the coatings. The mode and mechanism of material’s failure has been outlined and discussed.
New evolutionary frontiers from unusual virus genomes
Christopher Desjardins, Jonathan A Eisen, Vishvanath Nene
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-3-212
Abstract: If an alien landed on Earth and studied the biology here, it might justifiably conclude that viruses run the planet. They are numerically the most abundant biological entities [1], and they are profoundly important in shaping the ecology and evolution of just about every species on Earth [2]. Yet viruses are not considered to be alive by most biologists, and they have arguably fallen by the wayside in the genomics revolution [3]. The recent publication of the genome sequences of two unusual viruses, however, highlights the wealth of information that remains to be discovered through viral genomics. Here, we discuss Mimivirus [4] and Cotesia congregata Bracovirus [5] (CcBV) and the interesting questions they raise concerning the biology and evolution of viruses.Both Mimivirus and CcBV are classified as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and some of their features are summarized in Table 1. Mimivirus was discovered in amoebae [6], and it has a cycle of viral transmission and replication that is typical of many dsDNA viruses (Figure 1a). Its name is derived from 'mimicking microbe,' in reference to the bacterium-like appearance of its large particle (400 nm in diameter) and its Gram-positive staining. Mimivirus has the largest known viral genome (1.18 megabase-pairs) and encodes an unprecedented number of components of the transcriptional, translational and replication machinery, many of which have not previously been identified in viruses [4]. In addition, the genome encodes a large number of genes associated with metabolic pathways. Although the size and content of the Mimivirus genome might rival those of some obligate intracellular prokaryotes, it still appears to be absolutely dependent on its host cell for synthesis of proteins.CcBV differs from Mimivirus and other viruses in many fundamental aspects. As a member of the Polydnaviridae, the transmission and replication cycle of this Bracovirus is unconventional [7]. The Polydnaviridae - pronounced polyd-na-virida
A Survey on the Stability of 2-D Discrete Systems Described by Fornasini-Marchesini Second Model  [PDF]
Manish Tiwari, Amit Dhawan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2012.31003
Abstract: A key issue of practical importance in the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete system is stability analysis. Linear state-space models describing 2-D discrete systems have been proposed by several researchers. A popular model, called Forna- sini-Marchesini (FM) second model was proposed by Fornasini and Marchesini in 1978. The aim of this paper is to present a survey of the existing literature on the stability of FM second model.
Robust Suboptimal Guaranteed Cost Control for 2-D Discrete Systems Described by Fornasini-Marchesini First Model  [PDF]
Manish Tiwari, Amit Dhawan
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.32034
Abstract: This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of two-dimensional (2-D) uncertain discrete systems described by the Fornasini-Marchesini (FM) first model with norm-bounded uncertainties. New linear matrix inequality (LMI) based characterizations are presented for the existence of static-state feedback guaranteed cost controller which guarantees not only the asymptotic stability of closed loop systems, but also an adequate performance bound over all the admissible parameter uncertainties. Moreover, a convex optimization problem is formulated to select the suboptimal guaranteed cost controller which minimizes the upper bound of the closed-loop cost function.
Comparative Evaluation of Semi Fragile Watermarking Algorithms for Image Authentication  [PDF]
Archana Tiwari, Manisha Sharma
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.33023
Abstract: Technology has no limits today; we have lots of software available in the market by which we can alter any image. People usually copies image from the internet and after some changes they claim that these are their own properties. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Over the past few years, watermarking has emerged as the leading candidate to solve problems of ownership and content authentications for digital multimedia documents. To protect authenticity of images semi fragile watermarking is very concerned by researchers because of its important function in multimedia content authentication. The aim of this paper is to present a survey and a comparison of emerging techniques for image authentication using semifragile watermarking. In present paper comprehensive overview of insertion and extraction methods used in different semi fragile water marking algorithm are studied using image parameters, potential application, different algorithms are described and focus is on their comparison according to the properties cited above and future directions for developing a better image authentication algorithm are suggested.
Hospital-Acquired Anaemia Secondary to Phlebotomy in Elderly Patients  [PDF]
Divya Tiwari, Caroline Rance
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.32012

Introduction: Anaemia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients, yet unnecessary blood tests from inpatients may actually induce a “hospital acquired anaemia” (HAA). This study examines the incidence of phlebotomy-induced anaemia during a hospital admission. Methods: Patients admitted to the Royal Bournemouth Hospital between 2009 and 2011 for a period of more than two weeks were identified. Those with normal haemoglobins on admission (Hb > 130 g/dL in men; Hb > 120 g/dL in women) were selected to be included in the study. One hundred and sixty two patients were randomly selected from this group and their admission and discharge haemoglobin was recorded, and the change in Hb was calculated. The number of blood tests taken during admission was calculated from each patient from which volume of blood lost was determined. Age, sex and co-morbidities, bleeding complications and blood transfusions were noted. T-test for unequal variance was used for analysis. Results: Of the 162 patients, 69 (42.5%) developed a HAA (defined as haemoglobin drop from normal to <110 g/dL). The average number of blood tests taken in the anaemia group was 37, compared to only 23 in the “no-anaemia” group. i.e. 132 mls in the anaemia group vs. only 80.2 mls in no-anaemia group. Further analysis of the anaemia group revealed that 40 patients developed a “mild anaemia” (defined as drop in Hb from normal to <110 g/dL) and 29 developed a moderate/severe anaemia (drop from a normal Hb at admission to <100 g/dL). Significantly higher volume of blood was withdrawn from this moderate/severe anaemia group compared to those that developed a mild anaemia 177.9 mls vs. 121.34 mls (p-Value 0.007, F = 0.001) 95% CI 2.08 to 9.22. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients admitted for inpatient stays of more than two weeks may be at high risk of HAA as a consequence of diagnostic blood loss. This anaemia in turn may have detrimental consequences, especially in patients with pre-existing cardio-respiratory disease. There needs to be increased awareness of the risk posed to patients as a result of diagnostic phlebotomy and further studies are required to study its impact on LOS, morbidity and mortality outcomes.

Effectiveness of Banks after M & A  [PDF]
Brajesh Kumar Tiwari
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.41001

The goal of a bank merger is to increase the banks value in one way or another. The days of liberalization and globalization are in and there is a spate of mergers and acquisition which is sweeping the corporate world. Consolidation in the banking sector should largely be synergy-driven to acquire a quantum jump in the performance of the combined entity (2 + 2 ≥ 5). It can be achieved by combining complementary strengths, giving a better geographical spread, serving a larger number of customers in a better way with more diversified products and skills, realizing the opportunities for cross-selling, containing the cost of the merged entity, reduced competition, better utilization of available resources and deriving economies of scale. Over the last one and a half decade, the banking sector in India has not only grown in terms of size but also matured, diversified and consolidated to contribute towards building a robust financial system. In this paper, five cases of bank merger have been taken and Null Hypothesis, i.e. there is no difference in mean value of selected variables before merger and after the merger, is set and found rejected (in most of the variables). On the basis of the overall analysis, merger of Bank of Karad Ltd. (BOK) with Bank of India (BOI) was more effective in most of the variables as compared to merger of the New Bank of India (NBI) with Punjab National Bank (PNB), Benaras State Bank Ltd. (BSB) with Bank of Baroda (BOB), Nedungadi Bank Ltd. (NBL) with Punjab

Increasing the Efficiency of Grid Tied Micro Wind Turbines in Low Wind Speed Regimes  [PDF]
Kshitij Tiwari, Tirumalachetty Harinarayana
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.510023
Abstract: Major problem with grid tied micro wind turbine is synchronization and wind variability. Due to this problem the stability of available grid gets reduced. The stability can be achieved by output power control of the turbine. Major part of many countries like India, the annual mean wind speed is not high. The rated wind speed of turbine remain around 11 m/s and cut in is around 3.5 m/s. Due to this problem we aimed to develop a sustainable wind energy system that can provide stable power supply even at the locations of low wind speed of 2 - 4 m/s. To address this issue, a momentary impulse or external torque to the rotor by external motor is one of the good options to maintain the momentum of blades and thus provide stability for sufficient time. Various theoretical calculations and experiments are conducted on the above method. This would increase the output power and also the efficiency of wind turbine. We show that Return-On-Investment will be high as compared with other grid connected turbines. Our proposed concept in the present study, if implemented properly, can help the installation of number of wind turbines even at domestic level. It also makes the consumers energy independent and promotes the use of wind as a source of energy and may enter as a rooftop energy supply system similar to solar.
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