Abstract:
We develop a pricing rule for life insurance under stochastic mortality in an incomplete market by assuming that the insurance company requires compensation for its risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. Our valuation formula satisfies a number of desirable properties, many of which it shares with the standard deviation premium principle. The major result of the paper is that the price per contract solves a linear partial differential equation as the number of contracts approaches infinity. One can interpret the limiting price as an expectation with respect to an equivalent martingale measure. Another important result is that if the hazard rate is stochastic, then the risk-adjusted premium is greater than the net premium, even as the number of contracts approaches infinity. We present a numerical example to illustrate our results, along with the corresponding algorithms.

Abstract:
We use a continuous version of the standard deviation premium principle for pricing in incomplete equity markets by assuming that the investor issuing an unhedgeable derivative security requires compensation for this risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. First, we apply our method to price options on non-traded assets for which there is a traded asset that is correlated to the non-traded asset. Our main contribution to this particular problem is to show that our seller/buyer prices are the upper/lower good deal bounds of Cochrane and Sa\'{a}-Requejo (2000) and of Bj\"{o}rk and Slinko (2006) and to determine the analytical properties of these prices. Second, we apply our method to price options in the presence of stochastic volatility. Our main contribution to this problem is to show that the instantaneous Sharpe ratio, an integral ingredient in our methodology, is the negative of the market price of volatility risk, as defined in Fouque, Papanicolaou, and Sircar (2000).

Abstract:
We show that the mutual fund theorems of Merton (1971) extend to the problem of optimal investment to minimize the probability of lifetime ruin. We obtain two such theorems by considering a financial market both with and without a riskless asset for random consumption. The striking result is that we obtain two-fund theorems despite the additional source of randomness from consumption.

Abstract:
We find the optimal investment strategy to minimize the expected time that an individual's wealth stays below zero, the so-called {\it occupation time}. The individual consumes at a constant rate and invests in a Black-Scholes financial market consisting of one riskless and one risky asset, with the risky asset's price process following a geometric Brownian motion. We also consider an extension of this problem by penalizing the occupation time for the degree to which wealth is negative.

Abstract:
We provide investment advice for an individual who wishes to minimize her lifetime poverty, with a penalty for bankruptcy or ruin. We measure poverty via a non-negative, non-increasing function of (running) wealth. Thus, the lower wealth falls and the longer wealth stays low, the greater the penalty. This paper generalizes the problems of minimizing the probability of lifetime ruin and minimizing expected lifetime occupation, with the poverty function serving as a bridge between the two. To illustrate our model, we compute the optimal investment strategies for a specific poverty function and two consumption functions, and we prove some interesting properties of those investment strategies.

Abstract:
We assume that an agent's rate of consumption is {\it ratcheted}; that is, it forms a non-decreasing process. Given the rate of consumption, we act as financial advisers and find the optimal investment strategy for the agent who wishes to minimize his probability of ruin.

Abstract:
We find the minimum probability of lifetime ruin of an investor who can invest in a market with a risky and a riskless asset and can purchase a deferred annuity. Although we let the admissible set of strategies of annuity purchasing process to be increasing adapted processes, we find that the individual will not buy a deferred life annuity unless she can cover all her consumption via the annuity and have enough wealth left over to sustain her until the end of the deferral period.

Abstract:
We reveal an interesting convex duality relationship between two problems: (a) minimizing the probability of lifetime ruin when the rate of consumption is stochastic and when the individual can invest in a Black-Scholes financial market; (b) a controller-and-stopper problem, in which the controller controls the drift and volatility of a process in order to maximize a running reward based on that process, and the stopper chooses the time to stop the running reward and rewards the controller a final amount at that time. Our primary goal is to show that the minimal probability of ruin, whose stochastic representation does not have a classical form as does the utility maximization problem (i.e., the objective's dependence on the initial values of the state variables is implicit), is the unique classical solution of its Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, which is a non-linear boundary-value problem. We establish our goal by exploiting the convex duality relationship between (a) and (b).

Abstract:
We determine the optimal investment strategy of an individual who targets a given rate of consumption and who seeks to minimize the probability of going bankrupt before she dies, also known as {\it lifetime ruin}. We impose two types of borrowing constraints: First, we do not allow the individual to borrow money to invest in the risky asset nor to sell the risky asset short. However, the latter is not a real restriction because in the unconstrained case, the individual does not sell the risky asset short. Second, we allow the individual to borrow money but only at a rate that is higher than the rate earned on the riskless asset. We consider two forms of the consumption function: (1) The individual consumes at a constant (real) dollar rate, and (2) the individual consumes a constant proportion of her wealth. The first is arguably more realistic, but the second is closely connected with Merton's model of optimal consumption and investment under power utility. We demonstrate that connection in this paper, as well as include a numerical example to illustrate our results.

Abstract:
We establish when the two problems of minimizing a function of lifetime minimum wealth and of maximizing utility of lifetime consumption result in the same optimal investment strategy on a given open interval $O$ in wealth space. To answer this question, we equate the two investment strategies and show that if the individual consumes at the same rate in both problems -- the consumption rate is a control in the problem of maximizing utility -- then the investment strategies are equal only when the consumption function is linear in wealth on $O$, a rather surprising result. It, then, follows that the corresponding investment strategy is also linear in wealth and the implied utility function exhibits hyperbolic absolute risk aversion.