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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2751 matches for " Virginia Held "
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Morality, care, and international law
Virginia Held
Ethics & Global Politics , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/egp.v4i3.8405
Abstract: Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the thinking of Kant, Locke, and Rawls, among others and shows how arguments against respect for international law can be answered. It questions arguments based on the analogy between states and individuals, and between international law as it has developed and law based on an ideal social contract between individuals. It then turns to the ethics of care, a recent addition to moral theory, and examines its major characteristics and recommendations. It considers how the ethics of care would view international law and the guidance this moral approach could provide for international relations. The article shows how the ethics of care is compatible with various current trends, and how thinking about globalization and greater international interdependence would benefit from greater attention to it. The article argues that the ethics of care would clearly support respect for international law as it has developed, but that it would even more strongly support addressing current problems in ways that would, in the longer term, make appeals to law and its enforcements ever less necessary.
爆轰波的拐角效应(英)
Held
含能材料 , 2000,
Abstract: 爆轰波绕过急拐角或弧形拐角会产生不同的波形,其冲击波速度或爆速是相同的,但爆压却不同,这可以从不同的发光强度看出,爆轰波绕过急拐角后的光输出弱于绕过弧形拐角的发射光强度,显然这也是由于压力不同引起的。
StreamofReactionProductsbehindtheDetonationWaveFront
Held
含能材料 , 2001,
Abstract:
用简单方法测定爆轰序列时间差(英)
Held
含能材料 , 2000,
Abstract: 同步起爆装置的时间差、包括不同雷管的起爆时间差、传爆药爆轰波成长的时间差以及爆轰波最后到达主炸药的时间差,可通过印在柔性圆盘钢靶板上的道氏沟槽线的距离来测量,测量误差小于0.1μs.
A nomogram for P values
Leonhard Held
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-21
Abstract: I propose a graphical approach which easily translates any prior probability and P value to minimum posterior probabilities. The approach allows to visually inspect the dependence of the minimum posterior probability on the prior probability of the null hypothesis. Likewise, the tool can be used to read off, for fixed posterior probability, the maximum prior probability compatible with a given P value. The maximum P value compatible with a given prior and posterior probability is also available.Use of the nomogram is illustrated based on results from a randomized trial for lung cancer patients comparing a new radiotherapy technique with conventional radiotherapy.The graphical device proposed in this paper will enhance the understanding of P values as measures of evidence among non-specialists.P values are the most commonly used tool to measure evidence against a hypothesis [1]. The P value is defined as the probability, under the assumption of no effect (the null hypothesis H0), of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was actually observed. The complexity of this definition has led to widespread misinterpretations and criticisms [2-5]. Indeed, P values are often misinterpreted (a) as the probability of obtaining the observed data under the assumption of no real effect, (b) as an "observed" type-I error rate, (c) as the false discovery rate, i.e. the probability that a significant finding is "false positive", and (d) as the (posterior) probability of the null hypothesis [6].The latter misinterpretation has given rise to interesting work on the connection between P values and (posterior) probabilities of the null hypothesis. Within a Bayesian framework, the posterior probability is a function of the prior probability and the so-called Bayes factor, which summarizes the evidence against the null hypothesis.Several attempts have been made to transform P values to lower bounds on the Bayes factor and the resulting posterior probability of the null hypoth
Redefinir la gobernabilidad global: ?Apocalipsis cercano o reforma!
Held,David;
Análisis Político , 2008,
Abstract: in this article, the author describes and supports with evidence the three global issues that require the most urgent solution. then he explains the challenges in governance that it is necessary to overcome for the solution of such problems. after describing the contemporary trends in global governance, the article proposes some ways to strengthen it while citizenship and democracy become mutually strengthened. lastly, the article warns us on the urgency in the implementation of such reforms to avoid facing a current or soon apocalypse.
De l’urgente nécessité de réformer la gouvernance globale Reframing Global Governance : Apocalypse Soon or Reform !
David Held
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.514
Abstract: Le réchauffement climatique, la pauvreté ou la menace d’une catastrophe nucléaire comptent parmi les défis majeurs auxquels l’humanité se doit de faire face collectivement en ce début de 21e siècle. Malgré la gravité et l’urgence de la situation, les moyens dont nous disposons pour résoudre de tels problèmes demeurent limités et incomplets. Il est dès lors non seulement essentiel mais aussi urgent de penser comment faire face à de tels enjeux globaux. Les solutions passent par des mécanismes de gouvernance globale et se doivent de répondre aux exigences de solidarité, de démocratie, de justice sociale et d’efficacité politique. Il s’agit notamment d’assurer à chaque personne la possibilité d’influencer les conditions sociales qui fa onnent sa vie. Il est donc encore possible d’agir sur le cours des choses, mais si aucune réponse n’est rapidement apportée à ces défis majeurs, le futur de l’humanité risque d’être compromis. Global warming, poverty and the threat of nuclear catastrophe are among the major challenges humanity has to face collectively in this early 21st century. In spite of the seriousness and the urgency of the situation, the means at our disposal to solve such problems remain limited and incomplete. It is therefore not only essential but also urgent to think about how to face these growing global challenges. It requires new mechanisms of global governance and taking steps toward solidarity, democracy, justice and policy effectiveness. Among these key issues is the need to ensure the possibility for each person to influence the social conditions that shape his or her life. Thus, there is still hope that the vital task of reframing global governance may be pursued with an increasing sense of urgency. If this does not happen, the very future of humanity is at risk.
Redefinir la gobernabilidad global: Apocalipsis cercano o reforma! Reframing Global Governance: Apocalypse Soon or Reform!
David Held
Análisis Político , 2008,
Abstract: En este artículo, el autor describe y sustenta los tres problemas globales que requieren solución más urgente. Luego explica los retos en gobernanza que es necesario superar para la solución de tales problemas. Después de describir las tendencias contemporáneas en materia de gobernanza global, el artículo propone unas fórmulas para fortalecerla en las cuales la ciudadanía y la democracia se ven mutuamente fortalecidas. Por último, nos advierte sobre la urgencia de la implementación de tales reformas para evitar enfrentarnos a un apocalipsis actual o simplemente cercano. In this article, the author describes and supports with evidence the three global issues that require the most urgent solution. Then he explains the challenges in governance that it is necessary to overcome for the solution of such problems. After describing the contemporary trends in global governance, the article proposes some ways to strengthen it while citizenship and democracy become mutually strengthened. Lastly, the article warns us on the urgency in the implementation of such reforms to avoid facing a current or soon apocalypse.
Axiom System and Completeness Expression for Quantum Mechanics
Carsten Held
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10701-008-9230-4
Abstract: The standard axiomatization of quantum mechanics (QM) is not fully explicit about the role of the time-parameter. Especially, the time reference within the probability algorithm (the Born Rule, BR) is unclear. Using a plausible principle P1, about the role of probability in a physical theory, and a second principle P2 affording a most natural way to make BR precise, a logical conflict with the standard expression for the completeness of QM can be derived. Rejecting P1 is implausible. Rejecting P2 leads to unphysical results and to a conflict with a generalization of P2, a principle P3. It is thus made plausible that the standard expression of QM completeness must be revised. An absolutely explicit form of the axioms is provided, including a precise form of the projection postulate. An appropriate expression for QM completeness, reflecting the restrictions of the Gleason and Kochen-Specker theorems is proposed.
Dynamical Vertex Approximation
Karsten Held
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Dynamical vertex approximation is a Feynman diagrammatic extension of dynamical mean field theory, including non-local correlations on all time and length scales. Starting with the Dyson and the parquet equations, the lecture notes give an elementary introduction to the dynamical vertex approximation. As a benchmark, results for an exactly solvable benzene Hubbard ring are presented. Recent highlights, the calculation of the critical exponents of the Hubbard model in 3D and that long-range antiferromagnetic correlations in 2D actually shift the (paramagnetic) Mott transition to interaction U=0, are reviewed.
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