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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 153258 matches for " Virginia H. Dale "
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Bioenergy Sustainability at the Regional Scale
Virginia H. Dale,Richard Lowrance,Patrick Mulholland,G Phillip. Robertson
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: The establishment of bioenergy crops will affect ecological processes and their interactions and thus has an influence on ecosystem services provided by the lands on which these crops are grown. The regional-scale effects of bioenergy choices on ecosystem services need special attention because they often have been neglected yet can affect the ecological, social, and economic aspects of sustainability. A regional-scale perspective provides the opportunity to maximize ecosystem services, particularly with regard to water quality and quantity issues, and also to consider other aspects of ecological, social, and economic sustainability. We give special attention to cellulosic feedstocks because of the opportunities they provide.
Modeling the Effects of Land Use on the Quality of Water, Air, Noise, and Habitat for a Five-County Region in Georgia
Virginia H. Dale,Farhan Akhtar,Matthrew Aldridge,Latha Baskaran
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: A computer simulation model, the Regional Simulator (RSim), was constructed to project how land-use changes affect the quality of water, air, noise, and habitat of species of special concern. RSim was designed to simulate these environmental impacts for five counties in Georgia that surround and include Fort Benning. The model combines existing data and modeling approaches to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on: nutrient export by hydrological unit; peak 8-h average ozone concentrations; noise caused by small arms and blasts; and habitat changes for the rare Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). The model also includes submodules for urban growth, new urbanization influenced by existing roads, nonurban land cover transitions, and a new military training area under development at Fort Benning. The model was run under scenarios of business as usual (BAU) and greatly increased urban growth for the region. The projections show that the effects of high urban growth will likely differ from those of BAU for noise and nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to surface water, but not for peak airborne ozone concentrations, at least in the absence of associated increases in industry and transportation use or technology changes. In both scenarios, no effects of urban growth are anticipated for existing populations of the federally endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In contrast, habitat for gopher tortoise in the five-county region is projected to decline by 5 and 40% in the BAU and high urban growth scenarios, respectively. RSim is designed to assess the relative environmental impacts of planned activities both inside and outside military installations and to address concerns related to encroachment and transboundary influences.
Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Bioenergy Sustainability as Applied to Eucalyptus
Virginia H. Dale,Matthew H. Langholtz,Beau M. Wesh,Laurence M. Eaton
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/215276
Abstract:
Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Bioenergy Sustainability as Applied to Eucalyptus
Virginia H. Dale,Matthew H. Langholtz,Beau M. Wesh,Laurence M. Eaton
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/215276
Abstract: Eucalyptus is a fast-growing tree native to Australia and could be used to supply biomass for bioenergy and other purposes along the coastal regions of the southeastern United States (USA). At a farmgate price of $66 dry Mg?1, a potential supply of 27 to 41.3 million dry Mg year?1 of Eucalyptus could be produced on about 1.75 million ha in the southeastern USA. A proposed suite of indicators provides a practical and consistent way to measure the sustainability of a particular situation where Eucalyptus might be grown as a feedstock for conversion to bioenergy. Applying this indicator suite to Eucalyptus culture in the southeastern USA provides a basis for the practical evaluation of socioeconomic and environmental sustainability in those systems. Sustainability issues associated with using Eucalyptus for bioenergy do not differ greatly from those of other feedstocks, for prior land-use practices are a dominant influence. Particular concerns focus on the potential for invasiveness, water use, and social acceptance. This paper discusses opportunities and constraints of sustainable production of Eucalyptus in the southeastern USA. For example, potential effects on sustainability that can occur in all five stages of the biofuel life cycle are depicted. 1. Introduction As society moves forward toward considering energy options other than petroleum-based fuels, bioenergy is an important alternative to evaluate. In addition to developing the ability to provide energy, it is important to identify ways to do so in a sustainable manner. The concept of sustainability refers to activities that support long-term balance in environmental, social, and economic conditions in particular circumstances. Brundtland [1] defined it as the capacity of an activity to operate while maintaining options for future generations. Yet development and use of energy always has some environmental impacts, for example, on water and air quality and biodiversity. The challenge, therefore, is to develop means to address tradeoffs in the costs and benefits in energy choices while considering effects on both environmental and socioeconomic aspects of sustainability. The first step in determining these effects is developing a means to quantify and measure Brundtland’s broad definition of sustainability. Building on prior efforts, this paper discusses proposed indicators of sustainability and attempts to apply them to evaluate the potential for using Eucalyptus for sustainable bioenergy in the southeastern United States (USA). However the application of sustainability indicators in this
Synergistic Effect of Fullerene-Capped Gold Nanoparticles on Graphene Electrochemical Supercapacitors  [PDF]
Virginia Yong, H. Thomas Hahn
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.21001
Abstract:

We report the synthesis of graphene/fullerene-capped gold nanoparticle nanocomposite film which was used to construct supercapacitor electrodes. The fullerene-based self-assembled monolayers on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attained via the fullerene(C60)-gold interaction. The fullerene-capped AuNPs effectively separated the graphene sheets preventing aggregation. A synergistic effect was observed—the specific capacitance of graphene/fullerene-capped AuNP electrode is197 F/g, which is higher than that of graphene electrode (31 F/g), graphene/AuNP electrode (126 F/g), and graphene/fullerene electrode (118 F/g). The results render a novel route of synthesis and modification of graphene-based materials for the construction of electrochemical energy storage devices.

A cria??o de áreas protegidas e os limites da conserva??o ambiental em Rond?nia
Pedlowski, Marcos;Dale, Virginia;Matricardi, Eraldo;
Ambiente & Sociedade , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-753X1999000200008
Abstract: this article analyses the process of creation and protection of conservation units in the brazilian state of rond?nia. this effort has received financial and policy support from the world bank through different programs of regional development since the 1980s. based upon a discussion about the key role played by conservation units in the preservation of amazonian ecosystems, the article reviews the main limitations, of both institutional and human capital aspects, that undermine environmental conservation efforts like the one carried out in rond?nia. a specific discussion is made about persistent road construction as a regional development tool and its negative impacts on conservation units plus indian and extractive reserves. the article concludes that large investments in restructuring governmental agencies and top-down approaches for public participation do not guarantee the effective creation and protection of conservation units. a suggestion presented to improve the performance of conservation efforts is the involvement of local communities and civil society organizations in all levels and phases of the environmental conservation process.
Biochemical, Biophysical and Mechanical Characterization of Decellularized Dermal Implants  [PDF]
Frederick H. Silver, Dale DeVore, Ruchit Shah
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.812064
Abstract: Allografts have been used in a variety of applications to augment as well as replace tissues throughout the body. A number of steps are involved in selection, harvesting, processing and testing of dermal allografts. Grafts can be obtained that are: free of antibodies to viruses and low in viral titers. Cellular material can be eliminated from the tissue and the product becomes almost exclusively a collagen fiber network. The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in collagen structure and properties that occur during processing of decellularized dermis. The results indicate that collagen fiber swelling occurs during processing although the product preserves the native collagen banding pattern at the fibrillar structural level. Fiber swelling and decreased collagen deformability of processed dermis, may lead to stress concentration at the implant-tissue interface and up-regulation of mechanotransduction. This may lead to premature mechanical failure due to creation of a chronic inflammatory condition at the implant-tissue interface. It is suggested that all dermal allografts be oriented such that Langer’s lines of the implant match those of the host tissue, and that wound closure by suturing be done under conditions that preserve the normal tension in skin in order to minimize implant-interfacial failure.
Arthur Danto: narratividade histórica "sub specie aeternitatis" ou a arte sob o olhar do filósofo
Virginia H. A Aita
ARS (S?o Paulo) , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/s1678-53202003000100012
Abstract:
Effective local connectivity properties
Dale Daniel,Timothy H. McNicholl
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00224-011-9364-1
Abstract: We investigate, and prove equivalent, effective versions of local connectivity and uniformly local arcwise connectivity for connected and computably compact subspaces of Euclidean space. We also prove that Euclidean continua that are computably compact and effectively locally connected are computably arcwise connected.
Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution
Virginia H. Garrison,Greg Ward
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2012,
Abstract: In response to dramatic losses of reef-building corals and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale coral transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of coral colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to reefs, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-generated coral fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community. The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened reef-building species on local reefs. Storm-produced coral fragments of two threatened reef-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to coral fragment survival and transplanted to degraded reefs. Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted coral fragments to dead coral substrate. Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was assessed over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place. Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only. Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10. Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a solution. No coral conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are understood and mitigated or eliminated. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (Suppl. 1): 59-70. Epub 2012 March 01. En respuesta a la dramática pérdida de corales constructores de arrecifes y la continua falta de recuperación, un proyecto de peque a escala de transplante de corales, al cual se le dio seguimiento por 12 a os, se inició en el Caribe (Islas Vírgenes de EUA) en 1999. Los principales objetivos fueron (1) identificar fuentes de colonias de coral para el trasplante, que no produjeran da os a los arrecifes, (2) evaluar la viabilidad del trasplante de fragmentos de coral generados por tormentas, y (3) desarrollar un método simple y
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