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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2449 matches for " Virginia Gulino "
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HEPATITIS B AND C IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT
Anna Locasciulli,Barbara Montante,Emanuela Morelli,Virginia Gulino
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Although the risk of acquisition of hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus through blood products has considerably reduced since the last decade, some infected patients are candidates to stem cell transplantation. Others may have no alternative than an infected donor. In all these cases, recipients of transplant are prone to short and long term liver complications. The evolution of liver tests under chemotherapy before transplant may give useful information to anticipate on the risk of hepatitis reactivation after transplant, both for HBv and HCv. More than sixty percent of the patients who are HBsAg-positive before transplant reactivate after transplant, and 3% develop acute severe liver failure. Because both viral replication and immune reconstitution are the key factors for reactivation, it is crucial to closely follow liver function tests and viral load during the first months of transplant, and to pay a special attention in slowly tapering the immunosuppression in these patients. Lamivudine reduces HBv viremia, but favors the emergence of HBv polymerase gene mutants and should be individually discussed. Both in case of HBv or HCv hepatitis reactivation with ALT > 10N concomitantly to an increase in viral load at time of immune reconstitution, steroids should be given. In case there is no alternative than a HBv or HCv positive geno-identical donor, the risk of viral hepatitis, including acute liver failure and late complications, should be balanced with the benefit of transplant in a given situation.
Impaired Recruitment of Grk6 and β-Arrestin2 Causes Delayed Internalization and Desensitization of a WHIM Syndrome-Associated CXCR4 Mutant Receptor
Peter J. McCormick,Marta Segarra,Paola Gasperini,A. Virginia Gulino,Giovanna Tosato
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008102
Abstract: WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokatexis) syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome linked to heterozygous mutations of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 resulting in truncations of its cytoplasmic tail. Leukocytes from patients with WHIM syndrome display impaired CXCR4 internalization and enhanced chemotaxis in response to its unique ligand SDF-1/CXCL12, which likely contribute to the clinical manifestations. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying CXCR4 deficiency in WHIM syndrome. We report that after ligand activation, WHIM-associated mutant CXCR4 receptors lacking the carboxy-terminal 19 residues internalize and activate Erk 1/2 slower than wild-type (WT) receptors, while utilizing the same trafficking endocytic pathway. Recruitment of β-Arrestin 2, but not β-Arrestin 1, to the active WHIM-mutant receptor is delayed compared to the WT CXCR4 receptor. In addition, while both kinases Grk3 and Grk6 bind to WT CXCR4 and are critical to its trafficking to the lysosomes, Grk6 fails to associate with the WHIM-mutant receptor whereas Grk3 associates normally. Since β-Arrestins and Grks play critical roles in phosphorylation and internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors, these results provide a molecular basis for CXCR4 dysfunction in WHIM syndrome.
Spanish-Language Home Visitation to Disadvantaged Latino Preschoolers: A Means of Promoting Language Development and English School Readiness  [PDF]
Virginia Mann
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.56051
Abstract:

This study reports five years of a school readiness intervention called “HABLA” (Home Based Activities Building Language Acquisition), designed to increase and enrich speech and literacy activities in the homes of economically and educationally disadvantaged Latino families with children between the age of 2 and 4. A team of trained home visitors provided two years of a 23-week program of visitation in which they met with parent(s) and child twice weekly. Both years presented a Spanish language adaptation of the parent-child home program model; home visitors provide intensive modeling and coaching of non-directive Spanish language use, conversation, and literacy activities. Administration of the PLS-3 in Spanish at the onset and culmination of each year of the program indicates significant increases in receptive and expressive language for each year of visitation (7.8 standard points for the first year, 4.4 for the second) with effect-size r ranging from .24 to 42. Participants had significantly improved their levels of oral Spanish skill and scored much higher than a comparison group of non-treated. A subset of graduates of the two-year program was tested as kindergarteners; they showed a continued advantage over a comparison group of 18 peers who had not received the intervention. For the graduates, both their Spanish PLS-3 scores and English PLS-4 scores were significantly higher, and their parents reported a continued effort to provide literacy experiences at home. The HABLA participants also showed a clear advantage for an English language test of phonological awareness, one of the strongest predictors of school success.

Characterization of Genotypic Mutations and Antiretroviral Resistance among Viremic HIV-Infected Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Area: Treatment Challenge and Transmission Risk  [PDF]
AliAsad Arastu, Virginia Kan
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.13011
Abstract: There have been few reports evaluating the prevalence of genotypic mutations and antiretroviral resistance among chronic HIV-infected Veterans within the United States. This retrospective cross-sectional study characterizes the rates and changes in HIV genotypic mutations and antiretroviral resistance among viremic patients from 2001 to 2006 at the VA Medical Center located in Washington, DC. The District of Columbia is the metropolitan area with the highest HIV prevalence within the United States. De-identified, linked HIV RNA, genotypic reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (Pr) mutations and antiretroviral resistance results were assessed for changes during the 6-year period. Aggregated clinic and antiretroviral utilization, and HIV acquisition risk data were evaluated for patients in care during this time. Among 990 viremic samples, the rate of any detected RT or Pr mutation fell from 100% in 2001 to 95% in 2006. This was primarily attributable to the 15% - 20% decrease seen for RT gene mutations against nucleoside/nucleotide class and non-nucleoside class during this period. Resistance to didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine, nevirapine and efavirenz decreased, and tenofovir resistance increased. Despite stable rates of Pr gene mutations, atazanavir resistance increased by 22% from 2003 to 2006. Some but not all changes in genotypic mutations and resistance patterns reflected our patients’ antiretroviral drug utilization. As sexual contacts (77%) and injection drug use (22%) were the leading acquisition risks disclosed by our HIV-infected patients, the high prevalence and changing patterns of HIV genotypic mutations and drug resistance among these patients have had pivotal impacts not only on HIV treatment but potential transmission into our community.
Carbon Capture and Storage and the UNFCCC: Recommendations to Address Trans-Boundary Issues  [PDF]
Viviane Romeiro, Virginia Parente
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323017
Abstract: This paper is mainly focused on the eligibility of trans-boundary Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project activity and it aims to explore a broad range of CCS transboundary issues whereby the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and national governments could take into consideration. Much work is still to be done by the CCS community (including the Institute) to ensure that the implementation of CCS under the CDM is both environmentally effective and commercially attractive. The recommendations focus on technical issues, with the aim of helping Parties evaluate a robust strategy for CCS as part of international negotiations and establish CCS best practice criteria for governments and the international process, thereby enhancing transparency and ensuring that CCS deployment is safe and effective. When considering CDM projects activities with a transboundary component, it is recommend that the rules of the main international treaties related to CCS be considered by the UNFCCC, especially the London Protocol guidelines for risk assessment and management and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Additionally, national governments should apply the rules and guidelines as delineated under the relevant existing international treaties and CCS national regulations.
Water Stress Estimation from NDVI-Ts Plot and the Wet Environment Evapotranspiration  [PDF]
Daniela Girolimetto, Virginia Venturini
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.24031
Abstract:

In this work we present a new simple index to estimate water stress (WS) for different types of surfaces, from remotely sensed data. We derive a WS index, named WSIEw, modifying the Water Deficit Index (WDI) proposed by Moran et al. by using the wet environment evapotranspiration (Ew) instead of the potential evapotranspiration (Epot) concept. Jiang and Islam model was used to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ET) and Priestley and Taylor equation to estimate Ew. The WSIEw results were compared to ground observations of ET, precipitation (PP), soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil moisture (SM) in the Southern Great Plains-EEUU. Preliminary results suggest the method is sensitive to the water status of different surfaces. However, the WSIEw would range from 0 to 0.7, having a value of 0.4 for a dry surface with 5% of SM. The methodology is operationally

Induced Currents in Pipelines  [PDF]
Virginia Mabel Silbergleit
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.75018
Abstract: Changes in the geomagnetic field produce ground induced currents that can have impacts on artificial systems such as pipelines. According to these, geomagnetic perturbations observed during June 2005 are studied. The data measured on the Ottawa River Valley pipeline verify the appearance of induced currents greater than 700 mA and additional potential values larger than ?850 V that can produce additional corrosive effects.
Hedgehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma
Cucchi D, Occhione MA, Gulino A, De Smaele E
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S28553
Abstract: gehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma Review (776) Total Article Views Authors: Cucchi D, Occhione MA, Gulino A, De Smaele E Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 173 - 185 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S28553 Received: 06 September 2012 Accepted: 02 November 2012 Published: 17 December 2012 Danilo Cucchi,1,* Maria Anna Occhione,2,* Alberto Gulino,2,3 Enrico De Smaele1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Center of Life NanoScience @ La Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer and accounts for up to 40% of all cancers in the US, with a growing incidence rate over recent decades in all developed countries. Surgery is curative for most patients, although it leaves unaesthetic scars, but those that develop locally advanced or metastatic BCC require different therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, patients with BCC present a high risk of developing additional tumors. The increasing economic burden and the morbidity of BCC render primary interest in the development of targeted treatments for this disease. Among the molecular signals involved in the development of BCC, the critical role of the morphogenetic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has become evident. This pathway is found altered and activated in almost all BCCs, both sporadic and inherited. Given the centrality of the Hh pathway in the pathophysiology of BCC, the primary efforts to identify molecular targets for the topical or systemic treatment of this cancer have focused on the Hh components. Several Hh inhibitors have been so far identified – from the first identified natural cyclopamine to the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved synthetic vismodegib – most of which target the Hh receptor Smoothened (either its function or its translocation to the primary cilium). Other molecules await further characterization (bisamide compounds), while drugs currently approved for other diseases such as itraconazole (an antimicotic agent) and vitamin D3 have been tested on BCC with encouraging results. The outcomes of the numerous ongoing clinical trials are expected to expand the field in the very near future. Further research is needed to obtain drugs targeting downstream components of the Hh pathway (eg, Gli) or to exploit combinatorial therapies (eg, with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors or retinoids) in order to overcome potential drug resistance.
The Old Roots of the Italian Health Legislation
Caterina Bassetti,Matteo Gulino,Valentina Gazzaniga,Paola Frati
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: urrent Italian Health legislation is a paradigmatic example of a system based on the fundamental principles of the safeguard and right to individual health.This raises the question of its evolution and gradual shaping stemming from very old and deep roots. Such a long process started in the second half of the 19th century, when the newly reunified Kingdom of Italy, born in 1861, started to face the issue of a very obsolete health system. A number of laws sequentially provided the regulation of physician activities and health care for all people in need, regardless of their economic status and without any religious or political belief distinction, and culminate in the “Comprehensive Law on Health” enacted in 1934. These whole systems of laws have oriented the legislation on health care and organization, becoming a fundamental landmark until the promulgation of the Italian Constitution in 1948.
Hedgehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma
Cucchi D,Occhione MA,Gulino A,De Smaele E
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Danilo Cucchi,1,* Maria Anna Occhione,2,* Alberto Gulino,2,3 Enrico De Smaele1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Center of Life NanoScience @ La Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer and accounts for up to 40% of all cancers in the US, with a growing incidence rate over recent decades in all developed countries. Surgery is curative for most patients, although it leaves unaesthetic scars, but those that develop locally advanced or metastatic BCC require different therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, patients with BCC present a high risk of developing additional tumors. The increasing economic burden and the morbidity of BCC render primary interest in the development of targeted treatments for this disease. Among the molecular signals involved in the development of BCC, the critical role of the morphogenetic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has become evident. This pathway is found altered and activated in almost all BCCs, both sporadic and inherited. Given the centrality of the Hh pathway in the pathophysiology of BCC, the primary efforts to identify molecular targets for the topical or systemic treatment of this cancer have focused on the Hh components. Several Hh inhibitors have been so far identified – from the first identified natural cyclopamine to the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved synthetic vismodegib – most of which target the Hh receptor Smoothened (either its function or its translocation to the primary cilium). Other molecules await further characterization (bisamide compounds), while drugs currently approved for other diseases such as itraconazole (an antimicotic agent) and vitamin D3 have been tested on BCC with encouraging results. The outcomes of the numerous ongoing clinical trials are expected to expand the field in the very near future. Further research is needed to obtain drugs targeting downstream components of the Hh pathway (eg, Gli) or to exploit combinatorial therapies (eg, with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors or retinoids) in order to overcome potential drug resistance.Keywords: BCC, Hedgehog, vismodegib, Smo inhibitors, Gli antagonists, retinoids, itraconazole, vitamin D3
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