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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 338 matches for " Vincenza Colonna "
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A world in a grain of sand: human history from genetic data
Vincenza Colonna, Luca Pagani, Yali Xue, Chris Tyler-Smith
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-11-234
Abstract: To see a world in a grain of sand ...William Blake, Auguries of InnocenceThe genome of each individual is a temporary assemblage of DNA segments brought together for a single generation by a combination of chance, ancestry, recombination and natural selection. These segments have different histories because of recombination and can thus provide independent information about ancestry, the focus of this review. However, the ancestry of different segments is not entirely independent. Humans are not a single randomly mating population: we are subdivided, and these subdivisions into bands, tribes, clans, ethnic groups, nations and so on are of great interest to both scientists and non-scientists. Thus the thousands of different genomic segments in any individual do not trace back to ancestors randomly spread around the globe; segment ancestry is constrained by population history. Two non-recombining segments of the genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome, have been used for decades to study genetic histories [1,2]. Sometimes mtDNA and the Y chromosome share the same history, but often they do not, and such differences alert us to some of the complexities of the human past [3]. But mtDNA and the Y chromosome provide only two perspectives. Recent advances in technology provide access to most of the genome, and increasingly to the genomes of companion species. Here, we consider how this wider perspective is beginning to inform our view of human history. We will see that it is possible to probe much further back into the past, into a period in which the uniparental markers are uninformative yet key evolutionary events took place, and even to speculate about when humans might have begun to wear clothes or to start reconstructing the genomics of former populations before their contact with modern expansions.Genome-wide data can be obtained by either genotyping samples or re-sequencing them. Genotyping provides information about the allelic state of positions in
Origins and Evolution of the Etruscans’ mtDNA
Silvia Ghirotto, Francesca Tassi, Erica Fumagalli, Vincenza Colonna, Anna Sandionigi, Martina Lari, Stefania Vai, Emmanuele Petiti, Giorgio Corti, Ermanno Rizzi, Gianluca De Bellis, David Caramelli, Guido Barbujani
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055519
Abstract: The Etruscan culture is documented in Etruria, Central Italy, from the 8th to the 1st century BC. For more than 2,000 years there has been disagreement on the Etruscans’ biological origins, whether local or in Anatolia. Genetic affinities with both Tuscan and Anatolian populations have been reported, but so far all attempts have failed to fit the Etruscans’ and modern populations in the same genealogy. We extracted and typed the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA of 14 individuals buried in two Etruscan necropoleis, analyzing them along with other Etruscan and Medieval samples, and 4,910 contemporary individuals from the Mediterranean basin. Comparing ancient (30 Etruscans, 27 Medieval individuals) and modern DNA sequences (370 Tuscans), with the results of millions of computer simulations, we show that the Etruscans can be considered ancestral, with a high degree of confidence, to the current inhabitants of Casentino and Volterra, but not to the general contemporary population of the former Etruscan homeland. By further considering two Anatolian samples (35 and 123 individuals) we could estimate that the genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan culture developed locally, and not as an immediate consequence of immigration from the Eastern Mediterranean shores.
Intelligence, Globalization, Complex and Multi-Level Society  [PDF]
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.81004
Abstract: The information activity is based on the security needs. National Security is a concept that refers to the idea of a Nation not only in purely ethnic terms of nationality but?also?in the wider sense of defense as a center for political, economic, social and cultural imputations. According to a simplistic vision of National Security, typical of an old constitutionalist doctrine, defense from external threats and the maintenance of internal order are of primary importance. In contemporary Nations, international and regional organizations, legal entities under international law and an ever-increasing international structure of international relations made the system unprecedented and complex. The concept of National Security involves all the activities, citizens and tangible and intangible assets, culture and cultural identity.
The Intelligence Cycle  [PDF]
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.81003
Abstract: Focusing on the Information Cycle, reference is made to the distribution architectures and the pathways that the various Intelligence products (journals, reports, alerts, forecasts) produce to the Administration (Intelligence Cycle). An introduction to any study on the Information loop needs a brief digression to clarify concepts such as data, news, and information. Events mean any event or action that has been established to be true and/or has occurred and whose knowledge is assigned an information value; the information is the unclear cognition of a fact and/or a significant event related to topics of interest; information, in turn, is the product resulting from data following a frame of processing, analysis, interpretation, comparison, reasoned integration and evaluation.
The Italian Intelligence from the Pre-Unification Period to the First World War  [PDF]
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.81005
Abstract: In the newly formed Kingdom of Italy the first Intelligence operations were focused on the public order protection and the citizens’ security. This analytical, theory-building article examines the pre-existing core of the Italian Intelligence from the pre-unitarian Italian States to the First World War from a different perspective, evaluating the culturally transmitted factors that influence politico-military elites, security communities, and decision-makers.
The Israeli Intelligence Community  [PDF]
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82009
Abstract: The Israeli Intelligence Community is made up of Aman (military intelligence), Mossad (overseas intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security). This analytical, theory-building article examines the Israeli Intelligence, the jurisdiction, organization and Departments from a different perspective, evaluating the culturally transmitted factors that influence political and military elites, security communities, and decision-makers.
The Establishment of the Russian Intelligence  [PDF]
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82010
Abstract: Intelligence agencies are organized following various models. Contrasting to the “binary” model is the so-called “unitary” which provides a single security service entrusted for both foreign and domestic affairs, as in the case of the famous KGB. It is generally the system preferred from the former Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. This article evolves around the History of the Russian Intelligence from 1917 to 1925.
Psichiatria, restituzione e sublimazione del ‘male’ nelle parole dei pazienti psichiatrici
Vincenza Pellegrino
m@gm@ , 2012,
Abstract: Questo contributo si basa sulle storie di vita (più specificamente potremmo dire sulle storie di malattia e di cura) di 20 pazienti psichiatrici di Trieste, raccolte grazie a incontri ripetuti con ciascun testimone (persone con 'diagnosi severa' che avessero alle spalle almeno 10 anni di cura). L'intero lavoro di analisi è collocabile quindi all'interno del vasto mondo delle mental illness narratives, narrazioni finalizzate a cogliere il modo in cui i pazienti attribuiscono senso alla loro traiettoria biografica seguendo tipologie narrative ricorrenti, che danno vita - si potrebbe dire - ad un genere letterario particolare, connotato dal susseguirsi di 'svolte' tra loro connesse in modelli narrativi ora in chiave tragica ora eroica, cavalleresca o piuttosto satirica, come proposto in letteratura. Parallelamente all'analisi delle sequenze biografiche (strutturate appunto in: antefatto, soglia di entrata, andirivieni nelle crisi ecc.), il nostro studio si è concentrato su altri elementi ed in particolare sul significato attribuito alla cura psichiatrica (cosa cura? come agisce ciò che cura?) e sulla descrizione della comunicazione medico-paziente agli occhi di quest'ultimo. L'obbiettivo è infine quello di compiere un viaggio nell'immaginario di questi testimoni, orientato sui discorsi circa la medicalizzazione, l'idea di 'igenizzazione della mente', il conflitto e la sovrapposizione tra conoscenze esperte e non esperte, mediche e non, con l'interiorizzazione di costrutti egemoni come appunto quello della 'igiene mentale'.
Conversational elements of online chatting: speaking practice for distance language learners?
Vincenza Tudini
ALSIC : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication , 2003, DOI: 10.4000/alsic.2238
Abstract: A critical issue in the delivery of language courses at a distance is to provide adequate scaffolding and monitoring1 of learners to assist them in the development of their interlanguage. As well as being one of the main reasons students enroll in language courses, oral interaction is considered beneficial to interlanguage development since it provides opportunities for negotiation of meaning. In the case of campus-based students, learners' progress in speaking the target language is supported and monitored mainly in the classroom. If non campus-based or online students do not attend face-to-face classes, how do they find opportunities for oral interaction? Using a Conversational Analysis and Second Language Acquisition perspective, the author considers elements which are common to both face-to-face oral interactions and chatting via a computer, with a view to assessing the potential of synchronous text-based communication tools to support the development of the speaking skills and interlanguage of distance language learners. This is done by reviewing findings of previous studies on synchronous text-based communication tools and identifying selected characteristics of oral interaction which are present in the chat sessions of two groups of campus-based intermediate level learners of Italian. In particular, the study focuses on repairs and incorporation of target forms, variety of speech acts, particularly questions and clarification requests, and the presence of discourse markers.
éléments conversationnels du clavardage : un entra nement à l′expression orale pour les apprenants de langues à distance ? Conversational elements of online chatting: speaking practice for distance language learners?
Vincenza Tudini
ALSIC : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication , 2003, DOI: 10.4000/alsic.2231
Abstract: L'un des enjeux fondamentaux d'un cours de langue à distance est de pouvoir fournir un étayage, un accompagnement et une évaluation qui soient adaptés aux apprenants, et susceptibles de les aider à développer leur interlangue. Tout en constituant l'une des motivations principales du choix des étudiants pour un cours de langue, l'interaction orale est censée contribuer au développement de l'interlangue dans la mesure où elle favorise le processus de négociation du sens. Dans le cas des étudiants en présentiel, les progrès en expression orale en langue cible sont favorisés principalement grace aux aides fournies en classe lors du cours. On se demandera comment les étudiants à distance/en ligne, qui ne peuvent pas être présents sur le site, peuvent pratiquer l'interaction orale. Dans une perspective conversationnelle et acquisitionnelle en langue seconde, l'auteure envisage les aspects qui sont communs aux interactions en face à face et au clavardage, dans le but d'évaluer le potentiel des outils de communication synchrone à base textuelle comme vecteurs du développement de la compétence d'expression orale et de l'interlangue, chez des apprenants de langue à distance. Pour ce faire, l'auteure propose une synthèse des résultats d'études antérieures portant sur les outils de communication synchrone à base textuelle et procède à l'identification de certaines caractéristiques de l'interaction orale, présentes dans les sessions de clavardage de deux groupes d'apprenants d'italien de niveau intermédiaire. L'étude porte en particulier sur les stratégies de réparation et d'intégration de formes cibles, sur la variété des actes de langage, notamment les questions et les demandes de clarifications, ainsi que sur la présence de marqueurs discursifs. A critical issue in the delivery of language courses at a distance is to provide adequate scaffolding and monitoring1 of learners to assist them in the development of their interlanguage. As well as being one of the main reasons students enroll in language courses, oral interaction is considered beneficial to interlanguage development since it provides opportunities for negotiation of meaning. In the case of campus-based students, learners' progress in speaking the target language is supported and monitored mainly in the classroom. If non campus-based or online students do not attend face-to-face classes, how do they find opportunities for oral interaction? Using a Conversational Analysis and Second Language Acquisition perspective, the author considers elements which are common to both face-to-face oral interactions and
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