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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1102 matches for " Villar "
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Who Meets the Standrads: A Multidimensional Approach  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24069
Abstract: We consider here the evaluation of the performance of a society with respect to a given set of targets. We provide a characterization of an intuitive evaluation formula that consists of the mean of the shares of the achievements in the targets. The criterion so obtained permits one not only to endogenously determine who meets the standards and who does not, but also to quantify the degree of fulfilment. Two empirical illustrations are provided: the compliance of the European Union Stability and Growth Pact, on the one hand, and the evaluation of research excellence in the Spanish universities, on the other hand.
The Educational Development Index: A Multidimensional Approach to Educational Achievements through PISA  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.45042

This paper proposes a multidimensional index that summarizes three relevant aspects of the educational achievements, out of the data provided by the PISA Report, concerning reading abilities of 15-year-old students from 65 countries. The three aspects considered are: performance, equity, and quality. The Educational Development Index (EDI) is the geometric mean of the normalized values of those three variables. We analyse the distribution of the variables that approach those three aspects and the resulting index, relative to the corresponding means of the OECD countries.

Educational Poverty as a Welfare Loss: Low Performance in the OECD According to PISA 2012  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.74049
Abstract: This paper analyses the incidence and intensity of low performance among 15-year old students in the OECD countries according to PISA 2012. Taking level 2 of proficiency as the baseline competence, we approach the measurement of low performance by applying a multidimensional poverty measure that permits interpreting educational poverty as a welfare loss. We use a conventional welfare evaluation function to derive an index that combines the incidence, intensity and inequality of educational poverty. The results show that OECD countries differ in educational poverty much more than in PISA average scores and also that they present different mixes of incidence and intensity.
Destinos turísticos argentinos en Internet: Un análisis de los sitios gubernamentales
Estudios y perspectivas en turismo , 2007,
Abstract: this paper presents the results of an analysis of the government web sites of the main tourist destinations of argentina. at first, a reference is made to the role the new information and computerized technologies play in tourism. next, a new typology proposal is made that takes into account the guidelines of unwto and unctad related to the use of this means in organizing and analyzing information obtained.
Cómo repartir cuando no hay bastante
Lecturas de Economía , 2005,
Abstract: decisions on allocation of scarce resources constitute one of the elements that define the nature of economy. these decisions related to the scarcity problem, appear in individual and social contexts and generate rationing problems which are faced by the modern economic analysis from two perspectives: the first one is given by the cooperative theory of the games and the second one is the axiomatic study of the various proposed solutions. the latter is used in this article with the purpose of finding solutions to bankruptcy situations, which are simple rationing problems with a remarkable variety of interpretations and a precise mathematical formulation. to accomplish this, we take into account a comparative analysis of four classic rules (proportional, equality, thalmud and equal loss) that enables finding a solution by means of applying different equality criteria. the election of one or another criterion shall depend, generally, on the specific type of problem.
Uma abordagem crítica do conceito de "etnicidade" na obra de Fredrik Barth
Villar, Diego;
Mana , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-93132004000100006
Abstract: this article discusses fredrik barths approach to the problem of ethnicity based on a wide-ranging analysis of his work. analysis focuses on various key ideas recurrent in the authors programmatic and theoretical-methodological writings, as well as his ethnographic studies. a critical evaluation is made of the explicatory power of ecological and demographic factors in his model, the importance of his thesis of relative identity, the genealogy of theoretical influences found in barthian explanations and the problem of the rational actor as the binding element in his interactionist conception of social relations.
Cómo investigar en algo tan subjetivo como el dolor
Revista de la Sociedad Espa?ola del Dolor , 2006,
Abstract: about 10 million people in spain suffer from chronic pain. despite the identification of important steps in the mechanisms of pain, an unacceptably large number of people live with it chronically. since melzack and wall framed the idea of the central nervous system filtering, assessing and modulating the sensory information with their gate-control theory in 1965, we have advanced our understanding of the pain process. in this paper, i review the pathophysiological and molecular bases of pain, and explain the reasons why we do not have the tools to adequately treat all chronic or acute pain. of the current 100 clinical trials of pain relievers conducted by investigators from the national institutes of health in the united states, most of them are investigating new ways to deliver old standards or alternative approaches. with the help of the new science of genomics, we are discovering that there are genetic differences among individuals in response to drugs.
Los Determinantes Sociales de Salud y la lucha por la equidad en salud: desafíos para el estado y la sociedad civil
Villar, Eugenio;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902007000300002
Abstract: who has launched the commission on social determinants of health which will deliver its final report in 2008. the social determinants of health (sdh) approach is not a new subject but one which has gained more visibility with the widening of inequities, blamed on the neo-liberal development model. progressively, social justice issues are re-emerging, backed by evidence and new approaches which crystallize the relationship between unequal distribution of sdh and their consequences, unequal health outcomes. processes like globalization under a neo-liberal brand and climate change influence the sdh, resulting in acute inequities and social marginalization. there are some successful examples of countries with policies addressing the sdh. for example, sweden, with due regard to its particular political and institutional context, has developed public health intersectoral policies that aim at decreasing health inequities. these policies also encourage a participatory model as a means of efficiently tackling the sdh. another example is chile which is building a children social protection system (chile crece contigo) using an integrated approach that includes right-based and sdh approaches. the programme's objective is universal coverage with a life cycle approach. a major milestone for civil society in latin america is the effort by the americas' civil society organizations to strengthen a dialogue that fosters a common agenda on the sdh. the organizations are working with the governments of brazil, chile, the oias, paho and who. their goal is to introduce a new participatory and sustainable development mode, one which is participatory, rights-based and ensures sustainable improvements of sdhs and benefits all people.
Cómo ser autóctono: Del puro ateniense al francés de raigambre
Diego Villar
Runa : Archivo para las Ciencias del Hombre , 2009,
The United Nations in the Face of Current Challenges
Francisco Villar
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1995,
Abstract: As a result of the 50th anniversary of the birth of the United Nations Organization (UN), this article takes a look at the role which this international organization has played on the international stage and sets out the great challenges which this has to confront today, especially since the transformation of the international system from 1988 onwards and the beginning of (what has been called) the end of the Cold War. These challenges are the following: peace-keeping and international security in an increasingly complex and unstable world, the promotion and protection of Human Rights throughout the world and the challenge of development.At the same time, the process of institutional reform taken up by the UN in order to make its various organs more efficient and the obtaining of the necessary financial resources and their putting to more efficent use are also discussed. In this context, the reform of the Security Council as well as in the economic and social sector, the financial problem and the changes made in the organization of the Secretariat are also analysed.The article concludes with the positive evaluation that whatever the imperfections of the UN, the world today would be much less safer and just if it did not exist.
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