Abstract:
Background Bladder pain of unknown etiology has been associated with co-morbid conditions and functional abnormalities in neighboring pelvic organs. Mechanisms underlying pain co-morbidities include cross-sensitization, which occurs predominantly via convergent neural pathways connecting distinct pelvic organs. Our previous results showed that colonic inflammation caused detrusor instability via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) signaling pathways, therefore, we aimed to determine whether neurogenic bladder dysfunction can develop in the absence of TRPV1 receptors. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and TRPV1 / (knockout) mice were used in this study. Colonic inflammation was induced by intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The effects of transient colitis on abdominal sensitivity and function of the urinary bladder were evaluated by cystometry, contractility and relaxation of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) in vitro to various stimuli, gene and protein expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in bladder sensory neurons, and pelvic responses to mechanical stimulation. Results Knockout of TRPV1 gene did not eliminate the development of cross-sensitization between the colon and urinary bladder. However, TRPV1 / mice had prolonged intermicturition interval and increased number of non-voiding contractions at baseline followed by reduced urodynamic responses during active colitis. Contractility of DSM was up-regulated in response to KCl in TRPV1 / mice with inflamed colon. Application of Rho-kinase inhibitor caused relaxation of DSM in WT but not in TRPV1 / mice during colonic inflammation. TRPV1 / mice demonstrated blunted effects of TNBS-induced colitis on expression and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in bladder sensory neurons, and delayed development of abdominal hypersensitivity upon colon-bladder cross-talk in genetically modified animals. Conclusions The lack of TRPV1 receptors does not eliminate the development of cross-sensitization in the pelvis. However, the function of the urinary bladder significantly differs between WT and TRPV / mice especially upon development of colon-bladder cross-sensitization induced by transient colitis. Our results suggest that TRPV1 pathways may participate in the development of chronic pelvic pain co-morbidities in humans.

Abstract:
Let $F\in W_{loc}^{1,n}(\Omega;\Bbb R^n)$ be a mapping with non-negative Jacobian $J_F(x)=\text{det} DF(x)\ge 0$ a.e. in a domain $\Omega\in \Bbb R^n$. The dilatation of the mapping $F$ is defined, almost everywhere in $\Omega$, by the formula $$K(x)={{|DF(x)|^n}\over {J_F(x)}}.$$ If $K(x)$ is bounded a.e., the mapping is said to be quasiregular. Quasiregular mappings are a generalization to higher dimensions of holomorphic mappings. The theory of higher dimensional quasiregular mappings began with Re\v{s}hetnyak's theorem, stating that non constant quasiregular mappings are continuous, discrete and open. In some problems appearing in the theory of non-linear elasticity, the boundedness condition on $K(x)$ is too restrictive. Tipically we only know that $F$ has finite dilatation, that is, $K(x)$ is finite a.e. and $K(x)^p$ is integrable for some value $p$. In two dimensions, Iwaniec and \v{S}verak [IS] have shown that $K(x)\in L^1_{loc}$ is sufficient to guarantee the conclusion of Re\v{s}hetnyak's theorem. For $n\ge 3$, Heinonen and Koskela [HK], showed that if the mapping is quasi-light and $K(x)\in L^p_{loc}$ for $p>n-1$, then the mapping $F(x)$ is continuous, discrete and open. Manfredi and Villamor [MV] proved a similar result without assuming that the mapping $f(x)$ was quasi-light. The result is known to be false, see [Ball], when $p

Abstract:
There have been, over the last 8 years, a number of far reaching extensions of the famous original F. and M. Riesz's uniqueness theorem that states that if a bounded analytic function in the unit disc of the complex plane $\Bbb C$ has the same radial limit in a set of positive Lebesgue measure on its boundary, then the function has to be constant. First Beurling [B], considering the case of non-constant meromorphic functions mapping the unit disc on a Riemann surface of finite spherical area, was able to prove that if such a function showed an appropriate behavior in the neighborhood of the limit value where the function maps a set on the boundary of the unit disc, then those sets have logarithmic capacity zero. The author of the present note, in [V], was able to weaken Beurling's condition on the limit value. Those results where quite restrictive in a two folded way, namely, they were in dimension $n=2$ and the regularity requirements on the treated functions were quite strong. Koskela in [K], was able to remove those two restrictions by proving a uniqueness result for functions in $ACL^p(\Bbb B^n)$ for values of $p$ in the interval $(1,n]$. Koskela also shows in his paper that his result is sharp..

Abstract:
Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5–12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. Results There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Conclusions Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys.

Abstract:
New Internet uses have been appeared from 2000 on: services online, networks and facilities for publications are some of these new implementations that the development of the Internet technologies are generating.This article shows a practical review about these new uses and technologies that are spreading out by the name of Web 2.0

Abstract:
Wiki is a new kind of web publication that has an interesting uses in compulsory education. This article address one educational experience with teenagers who use wiki publications to improve science knowledge.

Abstract:
we referred a fourty-four years old male, without interesting personal history and who was accepted in the hospital due to dyspnea and fever and who was diagnosed with empyema by acinetobacter baumannii acquired in the community ; we have found no references about this in the medical literature.

Abstract:
Let $F\in W^{1,n}_{\text{loc}}(\Omega; \Bbb R^n)$ be a mapping with nonnegative Jacobian $J_F(x)=\det DF(x)\ge 0$ for a.e. $x$ in a domain $\Omega\subset\Bbb R^n$. The {\it dilatation} of $F$ is defined (almost everywhere in $\Omega$) by the formula $$K(x)=\frac{|DF(x)|^n}{J_F(x)}\cdot$$ Iwaniec and \v Sver\' ak \ncite{IS} have conjectured that if $p\ge n-1$ and $K\in L^{p}_{\text{loc}}(\Omega)$ then $F$ must be continuous, discrete and open. Moreover, they have confirmed this conjecture in the two-dimensional case $n=2$. In this article, we verify it in the higher- dimensional case $n\ge 2$ whenever $p>n-1$.

Abstract:
In this paper we establish results on the existence of nontangential limits for weighted $\Cal A$-harmonic functions in the weighted Sobolev space $W_w^{1,q}(\Bbb B^n)$, for some $q>1$ and $w$ in the Muckenhoupt $A_q$ class, where $\Bbb B^n$ is the unit ball in $\Bbb R^n$. These results generalize the ones in section \S3 of [KMV], where the weight was identically equal to one. Weighted $\Cal A$-harmonic functions are weak solutions of the partial differential equation $$\text{div}(\Cal A(x,\nabla u))=0,$$ where $\alpha w(x) |\xi|^{q} \le < \Cal A(x,\xi),\xi >\le \beta w(x) |\xi|^{q}$ for some fixed $q\in (1,\infty)$, where $0<\alpha\leq \beta<\infty$, and $w(x)$ is a $q$-admissible weight as in Chapter 1 in [HKM]. Later, we apply these results to improve on results of Koskela, Manfredi and Villamor [KMV] and Martio and Srebro [MS] on the existence of radial limits for bounded quasiregular mappings in the unit ball of $\Bbb R^n$ with some growth restriction on their multiplicity function.