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Compression of MR Images Using DWT by Comparing RGB and YCbCr Color Spaces  [PDF]
Agrawal Jayprkash, Ritu Vijay
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.44046
Abstract: This paper consists of a lossy image compression algorithm dedicated to the medical images doing comparison of RGB and YCbCr color space. Several lossy/lossless transform coding techniques are used for medical image compression. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is one such widely used technique. After a preprocessing step (remove the mean and RGB to YCbCr transformation), the DWT is applied and followed by the bisection method including thresholding, the quantization, dequantization, the Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT), YCbCr to RGB transform of mean recovering. To obtain the best compression ratio (CR), the next step encoding algorithm is used for compressing the input medical image into three matrices and forward to DWT block a corresponding containing the maximum possible of run of zeros at its end. The last step decoding algorithm is used to decompress the image using IDWT that is applied to get three matrices of medical image.
Secular trends in cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides and prevalence of dyslipidemias in an urban Indian population
Rajeev Gupta, Soneil Guptha, Aachu Agrawal, Vijay Kaul, Kiran Gaur, Vijay P Gupta
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-7-40
Abstract: Successive epidemiological Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW) studies were performed in Western India in urban locations. The studies evaluated adults ≥ 20 years for multiple coronary risk factors using standardized methodology (JHW-1, 1993–94, n = 2212; JHW-2, 1999–2001, n = 1123; JHW-3, 2002–03, n = 458, and JHW-4 2004–2005, n = 1127). For the present analyses data of subjects 20–59 years (n = 4136, men 2341, women 1795) have been included. In successive studies, fasting measurements for cholesterol lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) and triglycerides were performed in 193, 454, 179 and 252 men (n = 1078) and 83, 472, 195, 248 women (n = 998) respectively (total 2076). Age-group specific levels of various cholesterol lipoproteins, triglycerides and their ratios were determined. Prevalence of various dyslipidemias (total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 160 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, low HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl, high cholesterol remnants ≥ 25 mg/dl, and high total:HDL cholesterol ratio ≥ 5.0, and ≥ 4.0 were also determined. Significance of secular trends in prevalence of dyslipidemias was determined using linear-curve estimation regression. Association of changing trends in prevalence of dyslipidemias with trends in educational status, obesity and truncal obesity (high waist:hip ratio) were determined using two-line regression analysis.Mean levels of various lipoproteins increased sharply from JHW-1 to JHW-2 and then gradually in JHW-3 and JHW-4. Age-adjusted mean values (mg/dl) in JHW-1, JHW-2, JHW-3 and JHW-4 studies respectively showed a significant increase in total cholesterol (174.9 ± 45, 196.0 ± 42, 187.5 ± 38, 193.5 ± 39, 2-stage least-squares regression R = 0.11, p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (106.2 ± 40, 127.6 ± 39, 122.6 ± 44, 119.2 ± 31, R = 0.11, p < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol (131.3 ± 43, 156.4 ± 43, 150.1 ± 41, 150.9 ± 32, R = 0.12, p < 0.001), remnant cholesterol (25.1 ± 11, 28
Multiple scrotal swellings: a rare case of idiopathic scrotal calcinosis
Madan M,Mahesh M.S.,Vijay P. Agrawal,Avinash P. Reddy
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: We present a rare case of idiopathic calcinosis of scrotum. The patient presented with multiple scrotal swellings associated with on and off itching and without any other symptoms for 3 years. These swellings were clinically diagnosed as multiple sebaceous cysts of scrotum. Histopathological examination revealed calcinosis of the scrotum.
TASTE ABATEMENT TECHNIQUES TO INPROVE PALATABILITY OF ORAL PHARMACEUTICALS - A REVIEW
Vijay A. Agrawal
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Taste is an important parameter in administering drugs orally and is a critical factor to be considered while formulating orodispersible, melt in mouth, buccal tablet and other formulations which comes in contact with taste buds. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Administration of bitter drugs orally with acceptable level of palatability is a key issue for health care providers. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Four fundamental sensations of taste have been described: Sweet and salty, mainly at the tip. Sour, at the sides. Bitter, at the back. The present review depicts the taste-masking techniques like taste masking with flavors, sweeteners, and amino acids, lipophilic vehicles e.g. lipids, lecithin and lecithin-like substances etc and inter coating of drug particles, microencapsulation, inclusion complexes and molecular complexes of drugs with other chemicals, solid dispersions, use of multiple emulsions, liposome’s, prodrugs, taste abatement by ion exchange resins and their applications in pharmaceutical formulation technology, Classification of ion exchange resins, Factors that affect IER process involved in the delivery of cationic drugs.
Modeling of the Interaction of Flavanoids with GABA (A) Receptor Using PRECLAV (Property-Evaluation by Class Variables)  [PDF]
Vijay K. Agrawal, Basheerulla Shaik, Padmakar V. Khadikar, Shalini Singh
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.24035
Abstract: Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (2D-QSAR) models for binding affinity constants (log Ki) of 78 flavanoid ligands towards the benzodiazepine site of GABA (A) receptor complex were estimated using the PRECLAV (Property-Evaluation by Class Variables) program. The best MLR equation with nine PRECLAV descriptors has R2 = 0.843 and R2C = 0.782. Attempt is also made for obtaining 2D-QSAR model using NCSS software. The comparison of the results indicated that the PRECLAV method is very efficient in detecting structure-activity correlation with good predictive power.
MYSTERY OF RIGHT ILIAC FOSSA PAIN: A REVIEW OF FOUR CASES
PN Sreeramulu,Vijay Prakash Agrawal
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i10.724
Abstract: A Meckel diverticulum is a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric (vitellointestinal) duct. As a congenital anomaly, it is a true diverticulum that includes all 3 coats of the small intestine. It occurs in about 2% of the population. Prevalence in males is 3-5 times higher than in females. Only 2% of cases are symptomatic, which usually presents among children at the age of 2. It generally remains silent. The fact which makes it an important structure is its life threatening complications. We present four such cases which were presented as right iliac fossa pain and intraoperatively diagnosed as complicated meckel diverticulum.
BURN FISTULAS
Gurcharan Singh,Vijay Prakash Agrawal
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i6.475
Abstract: We present an unusual case of hot metal rod penetration through anterior aspect of the right thigh near femoral triangle and exited posteriorly through the right buttock leading to burn fistula. The case is presented because of rarity of hot rod penetrating the thigh and subsequent anxiety for the surgeon in keeping an eye over the femoral vessels and restoring the function of the limb. Keywords:Burn fistula, penetrating injury, wound debridement, reconstructive surgery
The pathology of cornea (A histopathological study)
Agrawal P
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1983,
Abstract:
Characterization of mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies (MLR-Bf) in human pregnancy
Manoj Pandey, Vijay Saxena, Suraksha Agrawal
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-3-2
Abstract: Serum was obtained from women of different gestational windows of pregnancy (Ist, IInd, IIIrd trimesters and post delivery period of normal pregnancy), recurrent spontaneous aborters from pre and post immunization. Healthy (male and females) controls were screened for the presence of mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies. The standard mixed lymphocyte reaction technique was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of serum in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. Each serum was tested for cytotoxic antibodies. Immunoglobulin G and its isotypes were isolated according to the standard protocol.In the present study we have observed that there was significant inhibition of proliferation response when immunoglobulin G from different trimesters of pregnancy were added to one way mixed lymphocyte reaction or to phytohemagglutinin activated lymphocyte proliferation assay. Similar pattern was seen when immunoglobulin G isolated from adequately immunized women with recurrent spontaneous abortion was used. It was further confirmed that amongst all the isotypes of immunoglobulin G, only immunoglobulin G-3 was found to be positive for the inhibitory effect.Present study indicates that mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies are immunoglobulin G-3 in nature. It is developed during pregnancy and also after immunotherapy in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion who subsequently have the successful pregnancy.Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies prior to 20 weeks of gestation. In a large number of patients the underlying cause of pregnancy loss often remains unclear [1,2]. This may be due to anatomical uterine defects, chromosomal defects, parental chromosomal rearrangements, gene mutations, endocrine factors, sub clinical infections, environmental toxins, collagen vascular diseases, auto immune factors, and psychological trauma or stress. However, in most of the women (1% – 2%) who experience recurrent miscarri
APPENDICULAR DIVERTICULOSIS: A CASE REPORT
PN Sreeramulu,Vijay Prakash Agrawal,TS Venkatachalapathy
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i7.601
Abstract: Diverticular disease of the appendix was first described by Kelynack in 1893. Diverticula are commonest in the descending and pelvic loops of the colon, but they not infrequently occur at other sites extending from the pharynx to the rectum. It is rare, however, to find diverticula in the vermiform appendix. Pathologists state the incidence varies from 0-2 to 2-23 per cent in postoperative and necropsy findings. Here we present one such rare case of appendicular diverticulosis with appendicitis.
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