Abstract:
We consider compact homogeneous spaces G/H of positive Euler characteristic endowed with an invariant almost complex structure J and the canonical action \theta of the maximal torus T ^{k} on G/H. We obtain explicit formula for the cobordism class of such manifold through the weights of the action \theta at the identity fixed point eH by an action of the quotient group W_G/W_H of the Weyl groups for G and H. In this way we show that the cobordism class for such manifolds can be computed explicitly without information on their cohomology. We also show that formula for cobordism class provides an explicit way for computing the classical Chern numbers for (G/H, J). As a consequence we obtain that the Chern numbers for (G/H, J) can be computed without information on cohomology for G/H. As an application we provide an explicit formula for cobordism classes and characteristic numbers of the flag manifolds U(n)/T^n, Grassmann manifolds G_{n,k}=U(n)/(U(k)\times U(n-k)) and some particular interesting examples.

Abstract:
We consider compact homogeneous spaces G/H, where G is a compact connected Lie group and H is its closed connected subgroup of maximal rank. The aim of this paper is to provide an effective computation of the universal toric genus for the complex, almost complex and stable complex structures which are invariant under the canonical left action of the maximal torus T^k on G/H. As it is known, on G/H we may have many such structures and the computations of their toric genus in terms of fixed points for the same torus action give the constraints on possible collections of weights for the corresponding representations of T^k in the tangent spaces at the fixed points, as well as on the signs at these points. In that context, the effectiveness is also approached due to an explicit description of the relations between the weights and signs for an arbitrary couple of such structures. Special attention is devoted to the structures which are invariant under the canonical action of the group G. Using classical results, we obtain an explicit description of the weights and signs in this case. We consequently obtain an expression for the cobordism classes of such structures in terms of coefficients of the formal group law in cobordisms, as well as in terms of Chern numbers in cohomology. These computations require no information on the cohomology ring of the manifold G/H, but, on their own, give important relations in this ring. As an application we provide an explicit formula for the cobordism classes and characteristic numbers of the flag manifolds U(n)/T^n, Grassmann manifolds G_{n,k}=U(n)/(U(k)\times U(n-k)) and some particular interesting examples.

Abstract:
A natural and important question of study two-valued groups associated with hyperelliptic Jacobians and their relationship with integrable systems is motivated by seminal examples of relationship between algebraic two-valued groups related to elliptic curves and integrable systems such as elliptic billiards and celebrated Kowalevski top. The present paper is devoted to the case of genus 2, to the investigation of algebraic two-valued group structures on Kummer varieties. One of our approaches is based on the theory of $\sigma$-functions. It enables us to study the dependence of parameters of the curves, including rational limits. Following this line, we are introducing a notion of $n$-groupoid as natural multivalued analogue of the notion of topological groupoid. Our second approach is geometric. It is based on a geometric approach to addition laws on hyperelliptic Jacobians and on a recent notion of billiard algebra. Especially important is connection with integrable billiard systems within confocal quadrics. The third approach is based on the realization of the Kummer variety in the framework of moduli of semi-stable bundles, after Narasimhan and Ramanan. This construction of the two-valued structure is remarkably similar to the historically first example of topological formal two-valued group from 1971, with a significant difference: the resulting bundles in the 1971 case were "virtual", while in the present case the resulting bundles are effectively realizable.

Abstract:
In this paper we use the technique of Hopf algebras and quasi-symmetric functions to study the combinatorial polytopes. Consider the free abelian group $\mathcal{P}$ generated by all combinatorial polytopes. There are two natural bilinear operations on this group defined by a direct product $\times $ and a join $\divideontimes$ of polytopes. $(\mathcal{P},\times)$ is a commutative associative bigraded ring of polynomials, and $\mathcal{RP}=(\mathbb Z\varnothing\oplus\mathcal{P},\divideontimes)$ is a commutative associative threegraded ring of polynomials. The ring $\mathcal{RP}$ has the structure of a graded Hopf algebra. It turns out that $\mathcal{P}$ has a natural Hopf comodule structure over $\mathcal{RP}$. Faces operators $d_k$ that send a polytope to the sum of all its $(n-k)$-dimensional faces define on both rings the Hopf module structures over the universal Leibnitz-Hopf algebra $\mathcal{Z}$. This structure gives a ring homomorphism $\R\to\Qs\otimes\R$, where $\R$ is $\mathcal{P}$ or $\mathcal{RP}$. Composing this homomorphism with the characters $P^n\to\alpha^n$ of $\mathcal{P}$, $P^n\to\alpha^{n+1}$ of $\mathcal{RP}$, and with the counit we obtain the ring homomorphisms $f\colon\mathcal{P}\to\Qs[\alpha]$, $f_{\mathcal{RP}}\colon\mathcal{RP}\to\Qs[\alpha]$, and $\F^*:\mathcal{RP}\to\Qs$, where $F$ is the Ehrenborg transformation. We describe the images of these homomorphisms in terms of functional equations, prove that these images are rings of polynomials over $\mathbb Q$, and find the relations between the images, the homomorphisms and the Hopf comodule structures. For each homomorphism $f,\;f_{\mathcal{RP}}$, and $\F$ the images of two polytopes coincide if and only if they have equal flag $f$-vectors. Therefore algebraic structures on the images give the information about flag $f$-vectors of polytopes.

Abstract:
We present an infinite series of operations on fullerenes generalizing the Endo-Kroto operation, such that each combinatorial fullerene is obtained from the dodecahedron by a sequence of such operations. We prove that these operations are invertible in the proper sense, and are compositions of (1;4,5)-, (1;5,5)-, (2,6;4,5)-, (2,6;5,5)-, (2,6;5,6)-, (2,7;5,5)-, and (2,7;5,6)-truncations, where each truncation increases the number of hexagons by one.

Abstract:
We extend work of Davis and Januszkiewicz by considering {\it omnioriented} toric manifolds, whose canonical codimension-2 submanifolds are independently oriented. We show that each omniorientation induces a canonical stably complex structure, which is respected by the torus action and so defines an element of an equivariant cobordism ring. As an application, we compute the complex bordism groups and cobordism ring of an arbitrary omnioriented toric manifold. We consider a family of examples $B_{i,j}$, which are toric manifolds over products of simplices, and verify that their natural stably complex structure is induced by an omniorientation. Studying connected sums of products of the $B_{i,j}$ allows us to deduce that every complex cobordism class of dimension >2 contains a toric manifold, necessarily connected, and so provides a positive answer to the toric analogue of Hirzebruch's famous question for algebraic varieties. In previous work, we dealt only with disjoint unions, and ignored the relationship between the stably complex structure and the action of the torus. In passing, we introduce a notion of connected sum $#$ for simple $n$-dimensional polytopes; when $P^n$ is a product of simplices, we describe $P^n# Q^n$ by applying an appropriate sequence of {\it pruning operators}, or hyperplane cuts, to $Q^n$.

Abstract:
We investigate geometrical interpretations of various structure maps associated with the Landweber-Novikov algebra S^* and its integral dual S_*. In particular, we study the coproduct and antipode in S_*, together with the left and right actions of S^* on S_* which underly the construction of the quantum (or Drinfeld) double D(S^*). We set our realizations in the context of double complex cobordism, utilizing certain manifolds of bounded flags which generalize complex projective space and may be canonically expressed as toric varieties. We discuss their cell structure by analogy with the classical Schubert decomposition, and detail the implications for Poincare duality with respect to double cobordism theory; these lead directly to our main results for the Landweber-Novikov algebra.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the ring $\mathcal{P}$ of combinatorial convex polytopes. We introduce the algebra of operators $\mathcal{D}$ generated by the operators $d_k$ that send an $n$-dimensional polytope $P^n$ to the sum of all its $(n-k)$-dimensional faces. It turns out that $\mathcal{D}$ is isomorphic to the universal Leibnitz-Hopf algebra with the antipode $\chi(d_k)=(-1)^kd_k$. Using the operators $d_k$ we build the generalized $f$-polynomial, which is a ring homomorphism from $\mathcal{P}$ to the ring $\Qsym[t_1,t_2,...][\alpha]$ of quasi-symmetric functions with coefficients in $\mathbb Z[\alpha]$. The images of two polytopes coincide if and only if their flag $f$-vectors are equal. We describe the image of this homomorphism over the integers and prove that over the rationals it is a free polynomial algebra with dimension of the $n$-th graded component equal to the $n$-th Fibonacci number. This gives a representation of the Fibonacci series as an infinite product. The homomorphism is an isomorphism on the graded group $BB$ generated by the polytopes introduced by Bayer and Billera to find the linear span of flag $f$-vectors of convex polytopes. This gives the group $BB$ a structure of the ring isomorphic to $f(\mathcal{P})$. We show that the ring of polytopes has a natural Hopf comodule structure over the Rota-Hopf algebra of posets. As a corollary we build a ring homomorphism $l_{\alpha}\colon\mathcal{P}\to\mathcal{R}[\alpha]$ such that $F(l_{\alpha}(P))=f(P)^*$, where $F$ is the Ehrenborg quasi-symmetric function.

Abstract:
From the paper of the first author it follows that upper and lower bounds for $\gamma$-vector of a simple polytope imply the bounds for its $g$-,$h$- and $f$-vectors. In the paper of the second author it was obtained unimprovable upper and lower bounds for $\gamma$-vectors of flag nestohedra, particularly Gal's conjecture was proved for this case. In the present paper we obtain unimprovable upper and lower bounds for $\gamma$-vectors (consequently, for $g$-,$h$- and $f$-vectors) of graph-associahedra and some its important subclasses. We use the constructions that for an $(n-1)$-dimensional graph-associahedron $P_{\Gamma_n}$ give the $n$-dimensional graph-associahedron $P_{\Gamma_{n+1}}$ that is obtained from the cylinder $P_{\Gamma_n}\times I$ by sequential shaving some facets of its bases. We show that the well-known series of polytopes (associahedra, cyclohedra, permutohedra and stellohedra) can be derived by these constructions. As a corollary we obtain inductive formulas for $\gamma$- and $h$- vectors of the mentioned series. These formulas communicate the method of differential equations developed by the first author with the method of shavings developed by the second author.

Abstract:
We consider the canonical action of the compact torus $T^4$ on the Grassmann manifold $G_{4,2}$ and prove that the orbit space $G_{4,2}/T^4$ is homeomorphic to the sphere $S^5$. We prove that the induced differentiable structure on $S^5$ is not the smooth one and describe the smooth and the singular points. We also consider the action of $T^4$ on $CP^5$ induced by the composition of the second symmetric power $T^4\subset T^6$ and the standard action of $T^6$ on $CP^5$ and prove that the orbit space $CP^5/T^4$ is homeomorphic to the join $CP^2\ast S^2$. The Pl\"ucker embedding $G_{4,2}\subset CP^5$ is equivariant for these actions and induces embedding $CP^1\ast S^2 \subset CP^2 \ast S^2$ for the standard embedding $CP^1 \subset CP^2$. All our constructions are compatible with the involution given by the complex conjugation and give the corresponding results for the real Grassmannian $G_{4,2}(R)$ and the real projective space $RP^5$ for the action of the group $Z _{2}^{4}$. We prove that the orbit space $G_{4,2}(R)/Z _{2}^{4}$ is homeomorphic to the sphere $S^4$ and that the orbit space $RP^{5}/Z _{2}^{4}$ is homeomorphic to the join $RP^2\ast S^2$.