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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151787 matches for " Vicki H. Allan "
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History Based Coalition Formation in Hedonic Context Using Trust
Ahmadreza Ghaffarizadeh,Vicki H. Allan
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5121/ijaia.2013.4401
Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of coalition formation in hedonic context. Our modelling tries to be as realistic as possible. In previous models, once an agent joins a coalition it would not be able to leave the coalition and join the new one; in this research we made it possible to leave a coalition but put some restrictions to control the behavior of agents. Leaving or staying of an agent in a coalition will affect on the trust of the other agents included in this coalition. Agents will use the trust values in computing the expected utility of coalitions. Three different risk behaviors are introduced for agents that want to initiate a coalition. Using these risk behaviors, some simulations are made and results are analyzed.
Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots
Daniel P. Stormont,Vicki H. Allan
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2009,
Abstract: Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the rst responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a re ghting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.
透過線上學習社群發展協作學習和知識建構 Fostering Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building through Online Learning Communities
Allan H. K. Yuen
Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: 面對知識型社會的需求,教育需要培育有能力創造新知識及從中獲益的人材。但是,怎樣的教育才能為學生的終身學習作好準備,實在是重要的課題。近年的教育改革中,課程革新已成為推動改革的重要策略。本文的目的是要通過一個課程革新的個案研究,展示網上學習社群如何幫助小學生作知識建構,裝備自已迎接日後終身的挑戰。我們認為學校能為學生終身學習提供的最好準備,是幫助他們建立一種能理解、創造和改進知識,並與知識一起工作的文化。六間香港小學體會到這種新學習文化的重要,便一同參與利用網上學習社群的方法對科學作專題研習。根據學生和教師的訪談分析,發現他們對網上學習社群的經驗可以歸納成兩個要素:協作學習和知識建構。 To address the demand of knowledge society, the question is what kind of schooling would be best to prepare students for life in the knowledge society. Curriculum innovations have been regarded as an essential strategy for educational reform throughout the era of educational change over the past years. The aim of this paper is to present a case study of curriculum innovation through online learning communities to prepare primary students for lifelong challenges. We argue the best preparation schools can provide for life is to help students build a culture of understanding, creating, improving and working with knowledge. Realizing the impact of such new learning culture, six primary schools in Hong Kong participated in the implementation of online learning communities through science project works. Through the analysis of the interviews of students and teachers, experiences arising from online learning communities were emerged in two major themes, namely, collaborative learning and knowledge.
Eruption age of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Spitsbergen Island, Norway
Allan H. Treiman
Polar Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.17320
Abstract: Sverrefjellet is a Pleistocene-age basaltic volcanic construct on north-western Spitsbergen Island (Svalbard Archipelago, Norway). Published ages for the Sverrefjellet eruption range between 6000 years and ca. 1 million years before present. The age of eruption is dated here as 1.05±0.07 (1σ) My, consistent with Ar–Ar isochron and plateau ages of several analysed samples. Radiogenic Ar represents a small proportion of the released Ar, <15% in nearly all samples. Non-radiogenic Ar components include air, excess 40Ar (seen as inverse isochron intercept values >40Ar/36Ar = 295.5), low-temperature alterations (Ar release at low temperature, with high Cl/K), carbonates and zeolites (Ar release at intermediate temperature) and xenolithic material (Ar release at high temperature, high Ca/K). The effects of the largely non-radiogenic argon sources are also seen in the total-gas Ar–Ar “ages”, which range from 1.3 to 10.3 My, significantly larger than the inferred eruption age. It is likely that total-gas Ar–Ar “ages” and whole-rock K–Ar “ages” of similar basalts also exceed their true eruption ages.To access the supplementary material to this article please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online.
Clinical Trial Phases  [PDF]
Vicki L. Mahan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521175
Abstract:
Developers of drugs, biologicals, and medical devices must ensure product safety, demonstrate medical benefit in people, and mass produce the product. Preclinical development starts before clinical trials and the main goals are to determine safety and effectiveness of the intervention. If preclinical studies show that the therapy is safe and effective, clinical trials are started. Clinical trial phases are steps in the research to determine if an intervention would be beneficial or detrimental to humans and include Phases 0, I, II, III, IV, and V clinical studies. Understanding the basis of clinical trial phases will help researchers plan and implement clinical study protocols and, by doing so, improve the number of therapies coming to market for patients.
Development of Case Stories by Interviewing Students about their Critical Moments in Science, Math, and Engineering Classes
Vicki V. May,Thomas H. Luxon,Kathy Weaver,Rachel Esselstein
Numeracy , 2008,
Abstract: Dartmouth’s Critical Moments project is designed to promote discussions among faculty and graduate students about the retention of students, particularly women and minorities, in science, math, and engineering (SME) disciplines. The first phase of the ongoing project has been the development of four case stories, which are fictionalized composites drawn from surveys and interviews of real Dartmouth students. The surveyed population was 125 students in general chemistry. Of the 77 who agreed to be interviewed, 61 reported having experienced a critical moment – i.e., a positive or negative event or time that had a significant impact on the student’s academic life. Leading critical moments were a poor grade on an exam; challenge from group work; excitement from an internship; and falling in love with a non-SME discipline from other coursework. Interviews of 13 students who had negative critical moments led to the development of case stories for: Antoinetta ’09, who had a disappointing group experience; Dalila ’08, who was poorly prepared; Greg ’09, who got in over his head in his first year; and Michelle ’08, who was shocked by her result in the first exam. The case stories are being discussed by graduate students, TA and faculty in various workshops at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning.
Implementing Holistic Dimensions for a Facial Composite System
Charlie D. Frowd,Vicki Bruce,Alex H. McIntyre,David Ross
Journal of Multimedia , 2006, DOI: 10.4304/jmm.1.3.42-51
Abstract: Facial composites are pictures of human faces. These are normally constructed by victims and witnesses of crime who describe a suspect’s face and then select individual facial features. Unfortunately, research has shown that composites constructed in this way are not often recognised. In contrast, we are quite good at recognizing complete faces, even if the face is unfamiliar and only seen briefly. This more natural way of processing faces is at the heart of a new composite system called EvoFIT. With this computer program, witnesses are presented with sets of complete faces for selection and a composite is ‘evolved’ over time. The current work augments EvoFIT by developing a set of psychologically useful scales – such as facial weight, masculinity, and age – that allow EvoFIT faces to be manipulated. These holistic dimensions were implemented by increasing the size and variability of the underlying face model and by obtaining perceptual ratings so that the space could be suitably vectorised. The result of three evaluations suggested that the new dimensions were operating appropriately.
Psychological Distress among Prostate Cancer Patients: Fact Or Fiction?
Christopher F. Sharpley,Vicki Bitsika,David H.R. Christie
Clinical Medicine : Oncology , 2008,
Abstract: Although the detrimental effect upon psychological well-being of receiving a diagnosis of, or treatment for, cancer has been demonstrated across many different types of cancer, three recent reviews of the psychological health of prostate cancer patients have produced contradictory conclusions. In order to elucidate the reasons for these apparent different conclusions, each of these reviews is described, with principal methods and findings summarised. Actual data, methodology used to select/reject research studies for inclusion in reviews, plus the validity of strict methodological culling of some research studies are discussed. Several extra studies and commentaries are also described, and a resolution of the apparent contradictory review conclusions is offered.
Data sharing: not as simple as it seems
Neil Pearce, Allan H Smith
Environmental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-10-107
Abstract: In recent years there has been a major change on the part of funders, particularly in North America, so that data sharing is now considered to be the norm rather than the exception. Data sharing is clearly, in general, a good idea. However, it is not as simple as it seems. The devil is in the detail, and the detail is highly specific to each study, and each potential data recipient. In this paper, we will therefore discuss some of the concerns and caveats which should be taken into account in any data sharing policy, or any individual decision about data sharing.More than twenty years ago, one of us (NP) was involved in a series of studies that identified a beta agonist asthma drug (fenoterol) as the cause of an epidemic of asthma deaths in New Zealand [1]. The accuracy of the data was disputed by other researchers, so prior to publication we organised several reviews, conducted blind, where they sat down with us and reviewed the general practitioner questionnaires and the hospital records (which were the basis for the drug prescribing data); this found that the classification of the data had been accurate [2]. However, following publication, the study findings were strongly disputed by the pharmaceutical company involved [2], and by an 'expert panel' which was assembled by the company [3]. The company requested the raw data for the studies, using the New Zealand Official Information Act, which applies to universities.We checked with the regulations of the New Zealand Medical Research Council, our main funder, and these stated that data could be shared with other 'bona fide researchers', but the decision was to be left up to the researchers who had originally collected the data - it was they who should decide who were 'bona fide researchers' who the data could be shared with. Since we did not consider the company, or its hired consultants, to be 'bona fide researchers' - in fact, we felt they had a vested interest in the issue, and had seriously misrepresented the p
Influence of a Transport Current on Magnetic Anisotropy in Gyrotropic Ferromagnets
Ion Garate,Allan H. MacDonald
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.134403
Abstract: Current-induced torques are commonly used to manipulate non-collinear magnetization configurations. In this article we discuss current-induced torques present in a certain class of collinear magnetic systems, relating them to current-induced changes in magnetic anisotropy energy. We present a quantitative estimate of their characteristics in uniform strained ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As.
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