Abstract:
Background Seawater temperature is the main factor restricting shallow-water zooxanthellate coral reefs to low latitudes. As temperatures increase, coral species and perhaps reefs may move into higher-latitude waters, increasing the chances of coral reef ecosystems surviving despite global warming. However, there is a growing need to understand the structure of these high-latitude coral communities in order to analyze their future dynamics and to detect any potential changes. Methodology/Principal Findings The high-latitude (32.75°N) community surveyed was located at Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan. Coral cover was 60±2% and was composed of 73 scleractinian species partitioned into 7 functional groups. Although only 6% of species belonged to the ‘plate-like’ functional group, it was the major contributor to species coverage. This was explained by the dominance of plate-like species such as Acropora hyacinthus and A. solitaryensis. Comparison with historical data suggests a relatively recent colonization/development of A. hyacinthus in this region and a potential increase in coral diversity over the last century. Low coverage of macroalgae (2% of the benthic cover) contrasted with the low abundance of herbivorous fishes, but may be reasonably explained by the high density of sea urchins (12.9±3.3 individuals m？2). Conclusions/Significance The structure and composition of this benthic community are relatively remarkable for a site where winter temperature can durably fall below the accepted limit for coral reef development. Despite limited functionalities and functional redundancy, the current benthic structure might provide a base upon which a reef could eventually develop, as characterized by opportunistic and pioneer frame-building species. In addition to increasing seawater temperatures, on-going management actions and sea urchin density might also explain the observed state of this community. A focus on such ‘marginal’ communities should be a priority, as they can provide important insights into how tropical corals might cope with environmental changes.

Abstract:
Context. Millimetric observations have measured high degrees of molecular deuteration in several species seen around low-mass protostars. The Herschel Space Telescope, launched in 2009, is now providing new measures of the deuterium fractionation of water, the main constituent of interstellar ices. Aims. We aim at theoretically studying the formation and the deuteration of water, which is believed to be formed on interstellar grain surfaces in molecular clouds. Methods. We used our gas-grain astrochemical model GRAINOBLE, which considers the multilayer formation of interstellar ices. We varied several input parameters to study their impact on water deuteration. We included the treatment of ortho- and para-states of key species, including H2, which affects the deuterium fractionation of all molecules. The model also includes relevant laboratory and theoretical works on the water formation and deuteration on grain surfaces. In particular, we computed the transmission probabilities of surface reactions using the Eckart model, and we considered ice photodissociation following molecular dynamics simulations. Results. The use of a multilayer approach allowed us to study the influence of various parameters on the abundance and the deuteration of water. Deuteration of water is found to be very sensitive to the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 and to the total density, but it also depends on the gas/grain temperatures and the visual extinction of the cloud. Since the deuteration is very sensitive to the physical conditions, the comparison with sub-millimetric observation towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293 allows us to suggest that water ice is formed together with CO2 in molecular clouds with limited density, whilst formaldehyde and methanol are mainly formed in a later phase, where the condensation becomes denser and colder.

Abstract:
Résumé de la thèse soutenue le 10 juin 2010 à l'université de Lille-iii, devant un jury composé de Victor Bergasa, de l'Université de Cergy-Pontoise (président), Jesús Ignacio Martínez Paricio de l'Université Complutense de Madrid (rapporteur), Jean-Claude Rabaté de l'Université de Paris-iii Sorbonne Nouvelle (rapporteur) et Guy-Alain Dugast de l'Université de Lille-iii (directeur de thèse).

Abstract:
We consider the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation in the supercritical case, and we are interested in solutions which converge to a soliton in large time in H^1. In the subcritical case, such solutions are forced to be exactly solitons by variational characterization, but no such result exists in the supercritical case. In this paper, we first construct a "special solution" in this case by a compactness argument, i.e. a solution which converges to a soliton without being a soliton. Secondly, using a description of the spectrum of the linearized operator around a soliton due to Pego and Weinstein, we construct a one parameter family of special solutions which characterizes all such special solutions.

Abstract:
For the L^2 subcritical and critical (gKdV) equations, Martel proved the existence and uniqueness of multi-solitons. Recall that for any N given solitons, we call multi-soliton a solution of (gKdV) which behaves as the sum of these N solitons asymptotically as time goes to infinity. More recently, for the L^2 supercritical case, Cote, Martel and Merle proved the existence of at least one multi-soliton. In the present paper, as suggested by a previous work concerning the one soliton case, we first construct an N-parameter family of multi-solitons for the supercritical (gKdV) equation, for N arbitrarily given solitons, and then prove that any multi-soliton belongs to this family. In other words, we obtain a complete classification of multi-solitons for (gKdV).

Abstract:
For the L2 supercritical generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation, we proved in a previous article the existence and uniqueness of an N-parameter family of N-solitons. Recall that, for any N given solitons, we call N-soliton a solution of the equation which behaves as the sum of these N solitons asymptotically as time goes to infinity. In the present paper, we also construct an N-parameter family of N-solitons for the supercritical nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, in dimension 1 for the sake of simplicity. Nevertheless, we do not obtain any classification result; but recall that, even in subcritical and critical cases, no general uniqueness result has been proved yet.

Abstract:
We provide consistent random algorithms for sequential decision under partial monitoring, i.e. when the decision maker does not observe the outcomes but receives instead random feedback signals. Those algorithms have no internal regret in the sense that, on the set of stages where the decision maker chose his action according to a given law, the average payoff could not have been improved in average by using any other fixed law. They are based on a generalization of calibration, no longer defined in terms of a Voronoi diagram but instead of a Laguerre diagram (a more general concept). This allows us to bound, for the first time in this general framework, the expected average internal -- as well as the usual external -- regret at stage $n$ by $O(n^{-1/3})$, which is known to be optimal.

Abstract:
Calibrated strategies can be obtained by performing strategies that have no internal regret in some auxiliary game. Such strategies can be constructed explicitly with the use of Blackwell's approachability theorem, in an other auxiliary game. We establish the converse: a strategy that approaches a convex $B$-set can be derived from the construction of a calibrated strategy. We develop these tools in the framework of a game with partial monitoring, where players do not observe the actions of their opponents but receive random signals, to define a notion of internal regret and construct strategies that have no such regret.

Abstract:
We provide a necessary and sufficient condition under which a convex set is approachable in a game with partial monitoring, i.e.\ where players do not observe their opponents' moves but receive random signals. This condition is an extension of Blackwell's Criterion in the full monitoring framework, where players observe at least their payoffs. When our condition is fulfilled, we construct explicitly an approachability strategy, derived from a strategy satisfying some internal consistency property in an auxiliary game. We also provide an example of a convex set, that is neither (weakly)-approachable nor (weakly)-excludable, a situation that cannot occur in the full monitoring case. We finally apply our result to describe an $\epsilon$-optimal strategy of the uninformed player in a zero-sum repeated game with incomplete information on one side.

Abstract:
Blackwell approachability, regret minimization and calibration are three criteria evaluating a strategy (or an algorithm) in different sequential decision problems, or repeated games between a player and Nature. Although they have at first sight nothing in common, links between have been discovered: both consistent and calibrated strategies can be constructed by following, in some auxiliary game, an approachability strategy. We gathered famous or recent results and provide new ones in order to develop and generalize Blackwell's elegant theory. The final goal is to show how it can be used as a basic powerful tool to exhibit a new class of intuitive algorithms, based on simple geometric properties. In order to be complete, we also prove that approachability can be seen as a byproduct of the very existence of consistent or calibrated strategies.